1. The 10-step process for developing training courses
The process for developing performance-based training includes the following 10 steps. The
first four steps constitute the task analysis that is necessary to design and develop relevant,
useful training materials. Steps 5–10 constitute the design and development process.
1. Define the target population for training.
2. List the tasks to be performed by the target population on the job.
3. List the skills and knowledge needed to do the tasks.
4. Select the skills and knowledge to be taught. (These make up the
5. Organize the selected skills and knowledge into suitable teaching units
(modules) and develop ...view middle of the document...
at this level may include health assistants, medical assistants, nurses, clinical assistants,
clinicians or physicians. Some may be private practitioners. They may or may not be able
to attend 5 days of training away from their jobs, so options are given for conducting the
course in a series of shorter sessions as well.
The target population for Management of tuberculosis: training for district TB
coordinators includes individuals responsible for planning, organizing, implementing and
evaluating the activities of a district TB control programme. A district usually serves a
population of 100 000 or more.
The District TB Coordinator is usually a physician or a nurse. He or she may have clinical
duties, but the job is primarily administrative and managerial. The District TB Coordinator
has no direct supervisory authority over health facility staff, but is responsible for
overseeing their performance of tasks related to TB case detection and treatment in health
facilities. In some districts, a team of people may work together to carry out the tasks of the
District TB Coordinator.
1.2 Listing the tasks to be performed by the target population
To list the tasks to be performed by the target population, one must know what “good
performance” is, in other words, what a good performer would do on the job. To find out, the
training developers must have access to:
• technical experts who can accurately describe the job,
• good performers who can be observed doing the job, and/or
• documents and manuals that accurately describe the job.
Through discussion with experts, observations, and review of documents, the training
developers develop a step-by-step task list.
The task lists for management of tuberculosis presented in this document were derived
from guidelines in the following WHO publications, as well as discussions with WHO staff
who have observed and consulted on TB control in many countries:
• Tuberculosis handbook. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998 (WHO/TB/98.253)
• An expanded DOTS framework for effective tuberculosis control. Geneva, World Health
Organization, 2002 (WHO/CDS/TB/2002.297)
• Treatment of tuberculosis: guidelines for national programmes, 3rd ed. Geneva, World
Health Organization, 2003 (WHO/CDS/TB/2003.313)
1.3 Listing the skills and knowledge needed to do the tasks
For each task involved in a job, the training developers next list the skills and knowledge
required to perform the task. Skills are generally actions such as measuring, mixing,
recording, calculating, communicating, or making decisions. Required knowledge is the
information needed to do a task correctly.
One task involved in treating patients who have TB is to Inform the patient and family
about TB and directly observed treatment. One skill required for this task is to
communicate clearly in a supportive way. Required knowledge includes the key facts that
must be communicated about TB and its...