A&P Repr Essay

3498 words - 14 pages

Chapter 15

Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

An Introduction to Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

Learning Outcomes

15-1 Specify the components of the afferent and efferent divisions of the nervous system, and explain what is meant by the somatic nervous system.

15-2 Explain why receptors respond to specific stimuli, and how the organization of a receptor affects its sensitivity.

15-3 Identify the receptors for the general senses, and describe how they function.

An Introduction to Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

Learning Outcomes

15-4 Identify the major sensory pathways, and explain ...view middle of the document...

16)

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Somatic Motor Pathways

Always involve at least two motor neurons

Upper motor neuron

Lower motor neuron

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Upper Motor Neuron

Cell body lies in a CNS processing center

Synapses on the lower motor neuron

Innervates a single motor unit in a skeletal muscle

Activity in upper motor neuron may facilitate or inhibit lower motor neuron

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Lower Motor Neuron

Cell body lies in a nucleus of the brain stem or spinal cord

Triggers a contraction in innervated muscle

Only axon of lower motor neuron extends outside CNS

Destruction of or damage to lower motor neuron eliminates voluntary and reflex control over innervated motor unit

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Conscious and Subconscious Motor Commands

Control skeletal muscles by traveling over three integrated motor pathways

Corticospinal pathway

Medial pathway

Lateral pathway

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

The Corticospinal Pathway

Sometimes called the pyramidal system

Provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles

System begins at pyramidal cells of primary motor cortex

Axons of these upper motor neurons descend into brain stem and spinal cord to synapse on lower motor neurons that control skeletal muscles

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

The Corticospinal Pathway

Contains three pairs of descending tracts

1. Corticobulbar tracts

2. Lateral corticospinal tracts

3. Anterior corticospinal tracts

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Corticobulbar Tracts

Provide conscious control over skeletal muscles that move the eye, jaw, face, and some muscles of neck and pharynx

Innervate motor centers of medial and lateral pathways

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

Corticospinal Tracts

As they descend, lateral corticospinal tracts are visible along the ventral surface of medulla oblongata as a pair of thick bands, the pyramids

At spinal segment it targets, an axon in anterior corticospinal tract crosses over to opposite side of spinal cord in anterior white commissure before synapsing on lower motor neurons in anterior gray horns

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

The Corticospinal Pathway

Motor homunculus

Primary motor cortex corresponds point by point with specific regions of the body

Cortical areas have been mapped out in diagrammatic form

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

The Corticospinal Pathway

Motor homunculus

Homunculus provides indication of degree of fine motor control available

Hands, face, and tongue, which are capable of varied and complex movements, appear very large, while trunk is relatively small

These proportions are similar to the sensory homunculus

15-5 Somatic Motor Pathways

The Medial and Lateral Pathways

Several...

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