A Report Of Environmental Cost On High Speed Railway

1694 words - 7 pages

A report of environmental cost on high-speed railway
Introduction
Environment is important to the survival of human; people’s living activities can not be separated from the environment. The purpose of Environmental Engineering is to reduce human damage to the environment, and improve the quality of the environment. Governance environment requires not only technology and management, but also the analysis of the environmental costs. We should also take environmental costs into account appropriately when conducting environmental governance. We should seek the balance of the environmental benefits and economic benefits. Nowadays, the environment of the railway project has drawn increasing ...view middle of the document...

Cost estimation methods were analyzed from the documents of 100 projects, including draft environmental impact statements, final environmental impact statements, and records of decision(Joseph Sturm & Mashrur Chowdhury & Anne Dunning & Jennifer Ogle,2010 pp.525-544). Also he gave the corresponding solutions. The environmental problems of the high-speed railway were introduced, but Qian Tian Da Fu did not introduce the cost of these technologies. European countries have also done a lot of meticulous research in reducing railway noise. For the calculation of the environmental costs, foreign estimation methods are many, but these methods are extremely complex and require a lot of detailed information。It does not apply to the conceptual design phase; or just the simple sum of the cost of the product life cycle, so it can not correctly reflect environmental costs. Australia's S. Kara and S. Manmek, gave an integrated approach to estimate the external environmental costs, their comprehensive the SLCA (Simplified Life Cycle Assessment) model and EV (Economic Valuation). The Netherlands also try to carry out environmental impact monetization, monetization into the use of environmental impact scoring method for different building materials, but only nine materials indicators, it should be further improved.

Relevant international organizations have promulgated a number of documents of the environmental management, varying degrees of issues related to environmental costs, mainly: ISO140001 (environmental management systems - Specification User Guide), ISO14004 (environmental management system - principles, system support Universal Technical Guide), ISO14010, (guidelines for environmental auditing - General principles), ISO14011 (guidelines for environmental auditing - audit procedures, environmental management systems auditing), ISO14012 (guidelines for environmental auditing - environmental auditor eligibility criteria), ISO 14020-98 (environmental labels and declarations - General), ISO14040-97 (environmental Management - life cycle Assessment: principles and frameworks), and ISO14041-98 (environmental management - life cycle assessment: goal and scope definition and inventory analysis) .They believe that an LCC(life cycle cost) has an influence on the decision it is intended to support, with the restriction that the study is properly carried out(Elisabeth Hochschorner & Maria Noring,2011,pp.897-902).

The 15th meeting of the international accounting and reporting standards of the United Nations Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts held in Geneva by the announcement of environmental accounting and reporting position. On the environment and environmental costs, they defined the environmental cost in the Announcement. This definition is the definition of narrow environmental costs which is not considered "external costs”. It considered only that cost made in the production and operation or other activities of the enterprise the affect its...

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