1) In regard to the issues of the extent of abnormal behavior, explain the following terms: (Ch1.Pg12)
a. Epidemiology: the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health-related behaviors in a given population.
b. Prevalence: refers to the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time.
c. Lifetime Prevalence: an estimate of the number of people who have had a particular disorder at any time in their lives (even if they are now recovered).
2) What are some of the biological causal factors of abnormal behavior?(Ch3.Pg61)
a. Some of the biological causal factors of abnormal behavior are:
i. Neurotransmitter and hormonal abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems
ii. Genetic vulnerabilities
iv. Brain dysfunction and neural plasticity
3) Briefly describe the psychodynamic, humanistic, and ...view middle of the document...
This perspective is concerned with processes such as love, hope, creativity, values, meaning, personal growth, and self-fulfillment. Certain underlying themes and principles of humanistic psychology can be identified, including the self as a unifying theme and a focus on values and personal growth.
c. (Ch3.Pg74)Psychodynamic Perspective: Chiefly concerned with the workings of the id, its nature as a source of energy, and the manner in which this id energy could be channeled or transformed. Also focused on the superego and the role of conscience but little attention was paid to the importance of the ego.
4) Explain classical and Instrumental conditioning
a. (Ch3.Pg76)Classical Conditioning: Before conditioning, the CS (conditioned stimulus) is neutral and has no capacity to elicit fear. However, after being repeatedly followed by a painful or frightening UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus) that elicits pain, fear, or distress, the CS gradually acquires the capacity to elicit a fear CR (conditioned response). If there are also interspersed trials in which the UCS occurs without being preceded by the CS, conditioning does not occur because in this case the CS is not a reliable predictor of the occurrence of the UCS.
b. (Ch3.Pg77)Instrumental Conditioning: An individual learns how to achieve a desired goal. The goal in question may be to obtain something that is rewarding or to escape from something that is unpleasant. Essential here is the concept of reinforcement, which refers either to the delivery of a reward or pleasant stimulus, or to the removal of or escape from an aversive stimulus. New responses are learned and tend to recur if they are reinforced. The animal or person learns a response-outcome expectancy—that is, learns that a response will lead to a reward outcome. If sufficiently motivated for that outcome, the person will make the response that he or she has learned produces the outcome.