This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Accounting Essay

1920 words - 8 pages

Geoengineering for Atmospheric Restoration
ROBERT B. JACKSON
JAMES SALZMAN
A few decades ago, the notion of actively controlling Earth’s climate resided primarily in the writings of science fiction authors such as Frank Herbert, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke.
Today, planetary engineering is being discussed openly by scientists and policymakers in Congress, the UK House of Commons, and many other settings.
Clarke’s advice apparently struck a chord: “Politicians should read science fiction, not westerns and detective stories.”
Geoengineering can be thought of as intentionally manipulating Earth’s climate to offset the warming from greenhouse gas emissions. Its activities can be ...view middle of the document...

It can also be industrial. Industrial options include using chemicals to capture CO2 from the air, with renewable energy regenerating the chemicals, or mining silicates or other geologic materials that react naturally with CO2, reburying the deposits after they have absorbed carbon. Whether biological or industrial, the goal of the activities is to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the air.
The second type of geoengineering reflects or blocks sunlight to cool Earth without reducing CO2 concentrations. Some commonly proposed “sunshades” include placing dust into the stratosphere with rockets and airplanes, placing space mirrors between Earth and the Sun, or increasing the extent and brightness of ocean clouds. Sunshade approaches are conceivable because reducing sunlight by a couple of percentage points is all that is needed to offset the warming from a doubling of atmospheric CO2. There is a natural analog for this approach: volcanic eruptions, such as Mt. Pinatubo in 1991, which blasted sulfur dust into the stratosphere and cooled Earth by 1° Fahrenheit for more than a year. A concise description of both types of approaches can be found in the Royal Society report Geoengineering the Climate, published in 2009.
Sunshade and carbon removal approaches differ in how fast they can be applied and what they will cost. Sunshade technologies could be applied quickly and fairly cheaply to reduce Earth’s temperature, at a price of perhaps several billion dollars per year and within months of a policy mandate for stratospheric dust seeding. This combination of speed and cost is the main reason why sunshade approaches are being discussed. No other technology allows us to alter the effects of global warming so quickly if Earth’s climate begins to spin out of control.
In contrast, carbon removal technologies would take decades to scale up, at significantly higher cost. For instance, at a price or tax of $100 per metric ton of CO2—roughly five times the European CO2 price in May 2010 but cheaper than industry can scrub CO2 from air today—removing a billion tons of CO2 using industrial approaches would cost $100 billion. Removing the entire fossil fuel emissions from the United States would take about $600 billion annually, and $3 trillion would pay for removing the 30 billion tons of CO2 emitted globally each year. These numbers dwarf the cost of sunshade approaches, even if cheaper biological options such as tree planting can help bring the price down.
How should we think about the geoengineering option? One promising model resides in the principle of restoration. In a well-cited primer from 2004, the Society for Ecological Restoration defined ecological restoration as “the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed.”
We propose to extend the concept of restoration to the atmosphere, suggesting the term “atmospheric restoration” as a guiding principle for prioritizing geoengineering efforts. The...

Other Papers Like Accounting

Accounting Essay

338 words - 2 pages September 21, 2014 AC 113-02 Accounting for Non=Accounting numbers Unit 8 Straight-line Method/Double Declining Method 1. The straight line method: ($300,000 – $0)/ 5= $60,000 The double declining method: (100%/5) = 20% 20%X2=40% $300,000X40%= $120,000 2. According to (Warren 2012) Straight line method of depreciation that provides for equal periodic depreciation expense over the estimated life of a fixed asset

Accounting Essay

1308 words - 6 pages indicating that the auditor’s reviewed the entirety of the financials for all minor and major misstatements which is not accurate. B- “In conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America” rather than “are properly stated to represent the true economic conditions.” In the section for managements responsibility over the financial statements it is a requirement that the selected appropriate accounting

Accounting

373 words - 2 pages Accounting -- Recording, classifying, summarizing and interpreting of financial events and transactions in an organization to provide interested parties needed financial information. Managerial Accounting -- Provides information and analysis to managers inside the organization to assist them in decision making. Public Accountants -- Provide accounting services to individuals or businesses. Auditing -- Reviewing and evaluating the information

Accounting - 2566 words

2566 words - 11 pages Benefits  Retirement benefit plan investments measured at fair value in accordance with IAS 26 Specific quantitative disclosure requirement: Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans  Assets for which recoverable amount is fair value less costs of disposal in accordance with IAS 36. DEFINITION OF FAIR VALUE Fair Value: measurement-date price received to sell and asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between

Accounting - 374 words

374 words - 2 pages Farooq Shah Business Accounting 1/14/13 The informative thoughts expressed in FATCA: A new era of financial transparency about privacy, oversea accounts and the new federal income tax laws are ones that I do not agree with. I don’t agree that we as Americans can work hard for our monies only to not have the privacy and courtesy to invest the way we choose wherever we choose. Under the FATCA act it requires all foreign financial

Accounting - 908 words

908 words - 4 pages amount? Answer: No. 30.What is the par or stated value of each of your company’s stocks? Answer: Common Stock : No par Value Footnote Disclosures: 31.How many footnote disclosures does your company have? Answer: Footnote Disclosure 32.How many significant accounting policies are listed under its Summary of Significant Accounting Policies? Answer: 16 33.What does it include as Cash and Cash Equivalents? Answer: Cash and Cash Equivalents

Accounting - 1742 words

1742 words - 7 pages ACCT 601– Managerial Accounting Investigating Cost Drivers Part A – Instructions The object of this exercise to gain a better understanding of overhead costs through the use of regression analysis. In particular, you will investigate which service department activities appear to drive or cause departmental overhead. The data you will use is from a proprietary database which contains detailed departmental (i.e. USED, NEW CAR, SERVICE

Accounting - 1555 words

1555 words - 7 pages accounting system keeps an up-to-date record of both ending inventory and cost of goods sold at any point in time. Periodic Inventory System Records the cost of purchases as they occur (in an account separate from the inventory account), takes a physical count of inventory at the end of the period (periodically), and applies the cost of goods sold model to determine the balances of ending inventory and cost of goods sold. Inventory Cost Flow

Accounting - 698 words

698 words - 3 pages their older competitors had no way to win over them. They believe in their intelligence and creativity. What’s more, they ignored any criticism from financial analysts since they thought that those criticisms are just from envy. On Jan. 15th, 2002, an employee called Sherron Watkins questioned Enron’s financial accounting. However, the CEO, Ken Lay never paid attention and took action on these questions.

Accounting - 1668 words

1668 words - 7 pages the reduction over and above the previous revaluation increment. The amount of $300,000 would be a reduction in revaluation surplus that is recorded as other comprehensive income. B. The manager claims, “There should be no adjustment for the decline in fair value because the recoverable amount of each parcel of land exceeds $2 000 000 at 30 June 2014”. Explain whether this is consistent with accounting standards. If a revaluation results in an

Accounting Education

306 words - 2 pages Accounting Education In the business world, accounting education is one discipline of study that all people, regardless of job position, should have some knowledge of. Its concepts can be applied to all job specialties, its importance has been promoted in recent years, and it is useful in people's everyday lives Barber, (2000). First, accounting education is important because it can be applied in all job specialties. Secretaries must use

Related Essays

Accounting Essay 9328 Words

9328 words - 38 pages ISSUES IN ACCOUNTING EDUCATION Vol. 22, No. 4 November 2007 pp. 685–708 China Eastern Airlines: People’s Republic of China Accounting Standards, International Financial Reporting Standards, or U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles? John L. Haverty ABSTRACT: China Eastern Airlines, headquartered in the People’s Republic of China, has been listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange since 1997. In its 2005 annual report, China

Accounting Essay 1359 Words

1359 words - 6 pages The development of financial accounting As we all known, the system of financial accounting is getting more and more perfect because of the emergency of a great amount of the financial transaction . Generally speaking, the developed speriod of accounting can divide three parts:Ancient Accounting, Contemporary Accounting and Morden Accounting. Accounting gets a better growth with the development of the world and science and

Accounting Essay 614 Words

614 words - 3 pages ADJUSTING ENTRIES BY MELANIE.KELLY7 ACCOUNTING In accounting there is many different things that you need to know, the one that we are going to go over today is adjusting entries. Adjusting entries are to ensure that revenue and expenses are properly recorded under accrual basis. Adjusting journal entries are made in the general ledger to record revenues that have not been

Accounting Essay 7464 Words

7464 words - 30 pages far and wide; they are commonplace throughout the business and accounting frontiers. Accounting for leases, however, is not so clear cut. Since there are various ways to account for leases, many companies pick and choose which they feel best suits their situation, even when this sweeps dirt under the rug along 3 the way. The financial procedures for dealing with leases should entail benefits as well as limitations to ensure each company is