MID TERM EXAM QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
In an organization, as in a play or a movie, a role is the part a person plays in a given situation. Managers often play a number of different roles. Much of our knowledge about managerial roles comes from the work of Henry Mintzberg. Mintzberg identified ten basic managerial roles clustered into three general categories.
Interpersonal Roles Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles are primarily social in nature; that is, they are roles in which the manger’s main task is to relate to other people in certain ways. The manager sometimes many serve as a figurehead for the organization. Taking visitors to dinner and attending ribbon-cutting ...view middle of the document...
The entrepreneur voluntarily initiates change, such as innovations or new strategies, in the organization. The disturbance handler helps settle disputes between various parties, such as other mangers and their subordinates. The resource allocator decides who will get what—how resources in the organization will be distributed among various individuals and groups. The negotiator represents the organization in reaching agreements with other organizations, such as contracts between management and labor unions. Again, behavioral processes are clearly crucial in each of these decisional roles.
Still another important element of managerial work is the set of skills necessary to carry out basic functions and fill fundamental roles. In general, most successful managers have a strong combination of technical, interpersonal, conceptual, and diagnostic skills.
Technical Skills Technical skills are those skills necessary to accomplish specific tasks within the organization. Assembling a computer, developing a new formula for a frozen food additive, and writing a press release each require technical skills. Hence, these skills are generally associated with the operations employed by the organization in its production processes.
Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills comprise the manager’s ability to communicate with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups. As we have already noted, managers spend a large portion of their time interacting with others. Thus, it is clearly important that they be able to relate to, and get along with other people.
Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills refer to the manager’s ability to think in the abstract. A manger with strong conceptual skills is able to see the “big picture.” That is, she or he can see potential or opportunity where others see road-blocks or problems. Managers with strong conceptual skills can see opportunities that others miss.
Diagnostic Skills Most successful managers also bring diagnostic skills to the organization. Diagnostic skills allow the manager to better understand cause-and-effect relationships and to recognize the optimal solution to problems.
Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting environmental information. It is about-
* the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses
* the process of perceiving
* a way of understanding or interpreting something
* intuitive understanding and insight.
Perception is the human subjective experience of information provided by the senses. Perception was first characterized as a selective activity. People cannot perceive all the stimuli confronting them from the surrounding environment. Thus, it is safe to say that managerial action usually takes place on the basis of imperfect or incomplete information. The stimuli that are selected are usually those that reinforce the attitudes of the perceiver. Perception is further characterized by...