RUNNING HEAD: African-American Progress to Attain Equality and Civil Rights 1
How African-Americans Worked to End Segregation, Discrimination and Isolation to Attain Equality and Civil Rights
HIS204: American History Since 1865
Instructor: Professor Marisea Stanley
January 21, 2013
African-Americans Progress to Attain Equality and Civil Rights 2
How African-Americans Worked to End Segregation, Discrimination, and Isolation to Attain Equality and Civil Rights
Since the period of slavery years, African Americans have gone through a hard period of isolation, discrimination and were segregated on the basis of their skin color. Disfranchisement, legalized ...view middle of the document...
Virginia, prohibited segregation in interstate bus travel. The case originated when Irene Morgan, a black woman, was arrested and fined ten dollars for refusing to move to the back of a bus running from Gloucester County, Virginia to Baltimore.” (Milestones
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In 20th Century African American History). April 9, 1947 “Freedom Riders” were sent into the South by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to test the Supreme Court’s June 3, 1946 ban against segregation in interstate bus travel. CORE, which was organized in 1942, had pioneered the sit in tactic at segregated restaurants, but gained national attention with the “Freedom Riders” demonstrations. CORE is best known for the wave of “freedom rides” which began in May, 1961. On February 1, 1960, four African American freshmen from the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College sat down and ordered coffee and donuts at a Woolworth’s department store lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. During this point of time, Woolworth’s had a sign posted that read “We don’t serve colored here” (Proudfoot, 1990). The manager of Woolworth’s didn’t serve them and the students stayed and remained there all day and returned the next day. “The students organized their sit-in protest by forming the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Segregation remained in the South in many public places such at lunch counters, on buses, and at drinking fountains. (Bowles, 2011).
Discrimination is ”treating people differently through prejudice, unfair treatment of one person or group, usually because of prejudice about race, ethnicity, age, religion or gender” (Encarta Dictionary: English). In early July 1941, millions of job was being created and large numbers of African Americans moved to cities in the north and west to work in defense industries and was often met with violence and discrimination. “A. Phillip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, and other black leaders, met with Eleanor Roosevelt and members of the President’s cabinet. Randolph presented a list of grievances regarding the civil rights of African Americans, demanding that an Executive order be issued to stop job discrimination in the defense industry. Randolph, with others, threatened that they were
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prepared to bring “ten, twenty, fifty thousand Negroes on the White House lawn” if their demands were not met. After consultation with his advisors, Roosevelt responded to the black leaders and issued Executive Order 8802, which declared, “There shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries and in Government, because of race, creed, color, or national origin.” It was the first Presidential directive on race since Reconstruction. The order also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate incidents of...