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Anatomy 213 Essay

1233 words - 5 pages

Two integrated division of study
Anatomy: study of the structure of the body; morphology
Physiology: study of the function of the body; how does it work
Fields of anatomy
Gross anatomy: what you can see with the naked eye
- Regional anatomy: studying just the head (looking at its muscles, etc)
- Systemic anatomy: 11 body systems
- Surface anatomy: study superficial anatomy; surface structures, then identify it deeper; surface landmarks
Microscopic anatomy: seen with microscope
- Cytology: cells
- Histology: study of tissues
Developmental anatomy: study of changes of the body from conception to full maturation
Comparative anatomy
Radiographic anatomy: using special tools
- CT, ...view middle of the document...

4) Regulation of exchange of materials between the cell and extracellular fluid.
- Plasma membrane is called Fluid mosaic model because molecules that make up the plasma membrane are constantly moving around
- Molecules of plasma membrane (fluid lipid bilayer embedded with proteins)
1) Lipids
- Phospholipids (most abundant)
- Cholesterol (tucked between phospholipid)
 Contributes to fluidity and stability of a cell membrane
2) Proteins
- Attaches to or inserts within lipid bilayer
3) Carbohydrate
- On outer surface
Phospholipid molecules
- Antipathic molecule
 Phosphate-glycerol head is polar (hydrophilic); align towards intracellular and extracellular fluid
 Fatty acid tail is nonpolar (hydrophobic)
- Phospholipid bilayer
 Lipid soluble molecules can get through bilayer
 Water soluble molecules and ions cannot get through (water molecules can move through, but it is very slow)
- Proteins
 50:50 ratio (protein:lipid)
 2 main
1) Integral: span membrane
2) Peripheral: holds and maintains plasma membrane; attach to inner or outer surface
 Water soluble.. they cross though channels
- Protein functions
1) Water filled pathways, or channels
2) Carrier molecules
3) Membrane bound enzymes
4) Receptor sites
5) Cells adhesion molecules (CAMs) (bind 2 membranes together)
6) Proteins on surface are important in cells’ ability to recognize self and in cell-to-cell interaction
- Cholesterol
a) Adds fluidity and flexibility to membrane
b) Helps stabilize phospholipid position – maintaining membrane integrity
c) Decreases permeability of membrane to H2O (makes it harder for water molecules to get across)
- Glycoproteins and glycolipids
a) Sugar coating- cell coat to possibly help cells bind
b) Cell identification (fingerprint)
Movement of substances across the plasma membrane
- Passive process (cell just waits for molecules to move across)
 No ATP used
 Is concentration dependent… always moving from high concentration to low concentration
- Active process
 ATP used
 Not concentration dependent (manually moving concentration gradient)
Types of passive processes
1) Diffusion: substance moved from high conc to low conc by way of kinetic (thermal) energy
 Lipid soluble goes through bilayer
 Water soluble goes through protein channel
2) Facilitated diffusion: lipid-insoluble substance is helped by a membrane carrier proteins down a concentration
 Carrier protein shape change.. conformational shape.
3) Osmosis: Movement of water molecules across a membrane.. (high h20 con to low h20 con)
4) Filtration: when dissolved solutes are moving through external force
- Ex: gravity/ hydrostatic blood pressure
Active Processes:
- Active transport: substances transported via membrane carrier protein usually against conc gradient
Tissue
- Cells work together ingroups
- Common embryonic origini
- Carry out cimilar function
- Bound with intercellular material
- Cells may be closely...

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