Approaches of the public administration in:
(a) The contemporary era
The approaches to the study of Public administration in the contemporary era can be categorized from different angles such as normative approach and empirical approach. The main focus of these approaches is how public administration should be, and also to describe and to analyze the actual administrative situations. There different forms of public administration which are divide as follows;
Case Method Approach
Institutional and Structural Approach
The Philosophical approach takes ...view middle of the document...
This approach naturally commands a powerful attraction in a society having rich past and can be valuable in identifying the uniqueness of the administrative system.
The scientific method of Public administration in the contemporary era uses inductive methods such as proceeding from particular to general through observation for collecting the data, classification of data and verification of the hypotheses. This method of public administration gave a great fillip in the development of effective techniques of organization and management and of budgeting and supply. It is usually treated as a mechanical organization and is subjected to the inflexibilities of laws of mechanics. Scientific method is used to determine activities of the office management such as accounting, control of material and supply. In the scientific approach methods such as measurement of work, time and motion studies, work flow charts, cost accounting , opinion sampling and polls are used for the solution of administrative problems.
Case Method Approach
A case is a description of what has actually taken place in administration, keeping in fact the context and all relevant dimensions. If competently handled, the case method approach is a sensitive one, seeking as it does to reconstruct the administrative realities and gives to students a flavor of the administrative Process. In this method, administrative decision, in any given question or issue, is made the focal point. The aim of case method is to point out to factors or considerations-political, economical, and personal or any other that can influence the decision of the administrator and also to know the process of decision or policy-making.
Institutional and structural Approach
Institutional approach deals with the behavior of individuals according to both informal rules and also formal rules. This approach deals with how individuals and groups construct institutions, how institutions function in practice, and the effects of institutions on each other, on individuals, societies and the community at large.
Institutional approach focuses on the systematic study of people's collective behavior, its ability to explain major political, social, or historical events is sometimes contrasted with the use of conspiracy theory to explain such events to ensure that there no secret and deceptive plot by small numbers of powerful or influential people at expense of the majority who are less influential.
Behavioral approach examines public administration by studying individual and collective human behavior in administrative situation. This method brings to bear upon administrative problems on inter-disciplinary approach which includes Sociology, individual and social psychology and cultural anthropology. Its main focus is on the actual behavior of persons and groups in organizations. In this method a comparison of behavioral pattern of public administration in different countries is done,...