Assignment3

1155 words - 5 pages

VIJAYBHASKAR GUDIBOINA
ID 10000125667
3.6 A 32-bit processor can address 4G memory. How do you build a 32-bit computer with more than 4G memory?
A 32-bit only CPU can address a maximum of 4GB (2^32 bits = 4294967296 bits = 4194304 KB = 4096 MB = 4GB). This is the limitation of 32-bit systems. Allocating a page file on top of your RAM if you already have 4GB of physical RAM will be useless. 
However, even if you have 4GB of physical RAM installed you won't be able to use all of it for your applications. A portion of the upper 3GB address is being occupied by your system devices ...view middle of the document...

Unfortunately, if you only have a 32-bit CPU, you can't install a 64-bit OS. 

Meanwhile, having a 64-bit OS doesn't always mean you can address 2^64 bits of memory. While the maximum RAM limit for 32-bit Windows 7 editions is 4GB, when it comes to the 64-bit editions, the amount of memory that the OS can address depends on which edition you are running. 

Here are the upper RAM limits for the different editions of Windows 7: 
Starter: 8GB 
Home Basic: 8GB 
Home Premium: 16GB 
Professional: 192GB 
Enterprise: 192GB 
Ultimate: 192GB A 32-bit only CPU can address a maximum of 4GB (2^32 bits = 4294967296 bits = 4194304 KB = 4096 MB = 4GB). This is the limitation of 32-bit systems. Allocating a page file on top of your RAM if you already have 4GB of physical RAM will be useless. 
However, even if you have 4GB of physical RAM installed you won't be able to use all of it for your applications. A portion of the upper 3GB address is being occupied by your system devices like your graphics card, BIOS, PCI, etc. That's why on some systems, you will see only 3.27GB of available RAM. This usually varies depending on the hardware. Take a look at the crude illustration below. 
In normal mode, the 32-bit OS can address this much: 
+---------------+ 4GB 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
| | 
+---------------+ 0 

Now if you put in your stuff and your RAM, say 2GB, in this address space: 

+---------------+ 4GB 
| BIOS, PCI | 
| GFX, ETC... | 
| | 
| | 
|---------------+ 3 GB 
| | 
| | 
| EMPTY | 
| | 
|---------------+ 2 GB 
| | 
| RAM | 
| | 
| | 
+---------------+ 0 

If you put another 1GB RAM in there for a total of 3GB it will still be fine because you still have 1GB of EMPTY space. 

But if you put another gig (so you now have a total of 4), then you have an overlap. Part of the last GB will be hidden behind BIOS, PCI, GFX, etc. so Windows cannot give it an address, and it will be "lost". 

Memory remapping can solve it by moving the last gig above PCI, GFX, BIOS, etc. but then you'll need an OS that can go beyond 4GB, which a 32-bit OS cannot do, and that's where the 64-bit OS comes to the rescue. Unfortunately, if you only have a 32-bit CPU, you can't install a 64-bit OS. 

Meanwhile, having a 64-bit OS doesn't always mean you can address 2^64 bits of memory. While the maximum RAM limit for 32-bit Windows 7 editions is 4GB, when it comes to the 64-bit editions, the amount of memory that the OS can address depends on which edition you are running. 

Here are...

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