Literature review 5
Biological applications of bioinformatics 5
Real world application of bioinformatics 6
Bioinformatics is a field in biotechnology that involves the application of technology involving computers to manage and analyze biological data. In this, computers are used in gathering, storing, analysis and the merging of biological data. Bioinformatics is not a research area by itself but lies between biological sciences and computational sciences. The main goal of bioinformatics is to review the value of biological information that is hidden in the ...view middle of the document...
In environmental fields, bioinformatics is being used to identify the type of bacteria that can cleanup waste. In agriculture, it is being used in producing crops with high yields and low maintenance cost. The elements of biology that finds uses in bioinformatics include cells, genes, molecules and functional genomics (Harper, McClain, & Ganko , 2012). A cell is the basic unit of life. Each cell is a system which contains several building blocks which are enclosed in a membrane. There are organisms with only one cell hence called unicellular organisms while others have more than one cell and are called multicellular organisms. Examples of unicellular organisms include bacteria and yeast (Searls & David, 2012). There exist four main types of molecules that take part in life. One type is called small molecules with examples of water, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides. Small molecules may act as the building molecules of macromolecules but may also independent roles including transmission of signals or energy or material source for a cell. The other type of molecules includes the proteins. These are the basic structural and functional molecules of the cells. In this category lies the structural proteins such as collagen, enzymes which act as catalysts for biochemical reactions with the example of hexokinase that catalyses conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in the glycolysis . Finally there is transmembrane proteins which function to maintain the cellular environment, regulate cell volume, extract and concentrate of small molecules from smaller particles from the neighboring external environment and to generate ionic gradient for the function of muscle and nerve cells. The other types of molecules include DNA and RNA collectively called biological macromolecules. DNA can be either double stranded or single stranded. The building blocks of a DNA molecule is a chain of molecules referred to as nucleotides. For nucleotides exist in two groups. Purines include adenine(A) and guanine (G) while cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are called pyrimidines. There are several data analysis services that can be offered by bioinformatics. Bioinformatics can offer gene expression microarrays, microarrays for genotyping, analysis of biological pathways, and sequencing projects for next generation using Illumina Genome Analyzer (Alexander, Gorbalenya, Philippe , Mark , Harris, Bruno, & Bruno, 2010). Specific biological databases have been set up each for a particular subject. EMBL is a database for nucleotide sequence data, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot are databases for proteins while PDBe is a database that reviews the 3D structure of proteins. There is a system that integrates information derived from the various heterogeneous databases into integrated information. Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) is a tool provided by EBI for Querying and linking information contained in many heterogeneous databases.