Biology and technology in the real world
BIOL 103 Introduction to Biology
Genetically modified organisms
February 7, 2016
Genetic engineering generally refers to the use of tools of modern biotechnology and molecular biology to specifically introduce or alter characteristics or traits in organisms. Scientists can use these tools to introduce new genetic material, or delete existing genetic material to introduce intended new or altered traits or characteristics. Many kinds of GE animals are in development. At this time, the largest class of GE animals is being developed for biopharm purposes—that is, they are intended to produce substances (for example, in their milk) that ...view middle of the document...
Any microorganism, plant, or animal in which genetic engineering techniques have been used to introduce, remove, or modify specific parts of its genome
in 2011, Chinese scientists generated dairy cows genetically engineered with genes for human beings to produce milk that would be the same as human breast milk. important for child immune development. 2012, researchers from new zealand developed a genetically engineered cow that produced allergy free milk- lactose free. Goats have been genetically engineered to produce milk with strong spider web like silk proteins in their milk. the silk proteins are very light and super strong. same tensile strength as high grade steel. Genetically modified fish have been developed with an over-production of growth hormone for use in the aquaculture industry. increases the speed of development and potentially reduce fishing pressure on wild stocks. these can mature in half the tome of non-GM salmon and can achieve twice the size.
Gm crops- genetically engineered crops are created to posses several desirable traits. Resistance to pests, herbicides, or harsh environmental conditions, greater yield, improved product shelf life, increased nutritional value, or production of valuable goods such as drugs, however, there is much controversy regarding the law that apply to GMOs and health.
3. GMOs are plant or meat products that have had their DNA altered in a laboratory by genes from other plants, animals, viruses or bacteria. For example, genetically modified corn contain a pesticide that cannot be washed off. Most GE food grown in the U.S. is "Roundup Ready," meaning it can withstand spraying of Monsanto's Roundup pesticide and live, while weeds around it die (Margie Kelly 2012). (Well, that's how it works initially; now resistant "superweeds" have increased the amount of pesticides farmers must spray on their GE crops.)
Genetic modification has made plants with extra vitamins, minerals, and other benefits. Swiss researchers created a strain of “golden” rice with a lot of beta-carotene. This antioxidant is good for the eyes and skin. And those bruise-free potatoes are supposed to cut down on cancer-causing chemicals created when potatoes are fried.
What's another benefit of using science to build better plants, according to people who are pro-GMO? You can combine plants that could never mate in the wild. An example of this is “Roundup Ready” corn. It can survive being sprayed by the weed killer. It is made of DNA from a few different types of plants.
Because of this, farmers can treat their entire field instead of just targeting weeds. Weeds die, but the corn is OK.
Are you unknowingly eating GMOs? About 90 percent of the corn grown in the U.S. has been genetically modified. That means all of those packaged goods containing corn syrup or corn in another form are likely fraught with GMOs. It’s not like the packaging will tell you “Made with GMOs,” but if you’re not buying an organic option, you can...