1. What is a research paradigm?positivism?interpretivism?
A research paradigm is a philosophical framework that guides how scientific research should be conducted.
Positivism is underpinned by the belief that reality is independent of us and the goal is the discovery of theories, based on empirical research (observation and experiment).positivism is associated with quantitative methods of analysis.
Interpretivism is underpinned by the belief that social reality is not objective but highly subjective because it is shaped by our perceptions. interpretivism focuses on exploring the complexity of social phenomena with a view to gaining interpretive understanding. ...view middle of the document...
They may be involved in different forms of participative enquiry.
4. What is the axiological assumption?
The axiological assumption is concerned with the role of values:
* Positivists believe that the process of research is value-free. Therefore, positivists consider that they are independent from what they are researching and regard the phenomena under investigation as objects. Positivists are interested in the interrelationship of the objects they are studying and believe that these objects were present before they took an interest in them.
* In contrast, interpretivists consider that researchers have values, even if they have not been made explicit. These values help to determine what are recognized as facts and the interpretations drawn from them. Most interpretivists believe that the researcher is involved with that which is being researched.
5. What is the rhetorical assumption?
Rhetorical assumption is concerned with the language of research. This is particularly important when you write your research proposal and your final dissertation or thesis. These documents should be complementary to your paradigm, but they must also be written in a style that is acceptable to your supervisors and examiners.
* In a positivist study, it is usual to write in a formal style using the passive voice. This is because you should try to convey the impression that your research was objective. You will use the future tense in your proposal.
* The position is less clear in an interpretive study. There fore, you would write in the first person using the future tense in the project proposal and the present tense in your dissertation or thesis.
6. What is the methodological assumption?
The methodological assumption is concerned with the process of the research:
* If you are a positivist, you are likely to be concerned with ensuring that any concepts you use can be operationalized; that is, described in such a way that they can be measured. You will focus on what you regard are objective facts and formulate hypotheses.
* If you are an interpretivist, you will be examining a small sample, possibly over a period of time. You will use a number of research methods to obtain different perceptions of the phenomena and in your analysis you will be seeking to under stand what is happening in a situation and looking for patterns which may be repeated in other similar situations.
7. Describe the assumptions of the main paradigms (use Table 3.2 )
Philosophical assumption | Positivism | Interpretivism |
Ontological assumption (the nature of reality) | Reality is objective and singular, separates from the researcher | Reality is subjective and multiply, as seen by participants |
Epistemological assumption (what constitutes valid knowledge) | Researcher is independent of that being researched | Researcher interacts with that being researched |
Axiological assumption (the role of values) | Research is...