The Buyer Decision Process (BDP)
Understanding and effectively responding to the process of customer’s behaviour such as their recognition of a need as well as searching for information and evaluation of alternatives before they purchase a product are key success factors for marketing strategy (Johnston, 2013). This process which consists of 5 stages is called the Buyer Decision Process. Subsequently is an outline of the 5 stages in the BDP:
• The recognition of unmet need/problem – the first and the most significant footstep in BDP is identifying a need from internal or external stimuli such as hunger, thirst, or word of mouth.
• Information Search – after understanding a problem, then the consumer normally search the information from internal and ...view middle of the document...
• Purchase Decision – it is the moment where the final purchase takes place. According to Philip Kotler (cited in Johnston, 2013), there are two issues that arise in this stage which has a big impact in the customer buying decision. They are the negative response from other buyers and the motivation to accept the feedbacks.
• Post-purchase Behavior – the last stage in BDP focuses more on retaining customers. The customers’ expectations, either satisfied or dissatisfied, are very important. In general, these reviews can be from referral, social media, or even word-of-mouth that has positives or negatives reviews. As a consequence, it guides them in brand loyalty of the company (Johnston, 2013).
These 5 stages can also be categorized to the three specific time zones. They are Purchase behaviour, Product delivery and Post-purchase behaviour (Fanning, 2015).
This flowchart illustrates the three time zones in BDP (Fanning, 2015).
Figure 1 - Buyer Decision Process
In marketing field, thinking tactically and strategically in BDP is really necessary. Marketers need to understand the consumer behaviour in either economic or psychological which also relates to low and high involvement goods. For low involvement (or economic) products, it is usually reasonably priced, repeated and regularly purchased. The regular purchases can be obtained when the satisfaction has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the high involvements (or psychological) are relatively expensive and further information needed before making decision. Generally, personal, cultural and social factors are affecting this psychological behaviour (Moore & Pareek, 2009, p.181).