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Chapter 6 Key Terms Essay

869 words - 4 pages

Chapter 6 Key Terms
Acquisition- The Formation Of A New Conditioned Response Tendency
Antecedents- In Behavior Modification, Event That Typically Precede The Target Response
Avoidance Learning- Learning That Has Occurred When An Organism Engages In A Response That Prevents Aversive Stimulation From Occurring
Behavior Modification- A Systematic Approach To Changing Behavior Through The Application Of The Principle Of Conditioning
Behavioral Contract- A Written Agreement Outlining A Promise TO Adhere To The Contingencies Of A Behavior Modification Program
Classical Conditioning- A Type Of Learning In Which A Neutral Stimulus Acquires The Ability To Evoke A Response That Was Originally ...view middle of the document...

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Fixed-ratio Schedule- A Reinforcement Schedule In Which The Reinforcer Is Given After A Fixed Number Of Non-Reinforced Responses
Higher-Order Conditioning- A Type Of Conditioning In Which A Conditioned Stimulus Functions As If It Were An Unconditioned Stimulus
Instinctive Drift- The Tendency For An Animal’s Innate Responses To Interfere With Conditioning Processes
Intermittent Reinforcement- A Reinforcement Schedule In Which A Designated Response Is Reinforce Only Some Of The Time
Law Of Effect- The Principle That If A Response In The Presence Of A Stimulus Leads To Satisfying Effects, The Association Between The Stimulus And The Response Is Strengthened
Learning- A Relatively Durable Change In Behavior Or Knowledge That Is Due To Experience
Matching Law- The Fact That, Under Concurrent Schedules Of Reinforcement, Organisms’ Relative Rate Of Responding To Each Alternative Tends To Match Each Alternative’s Relative Rate Of Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement- The Strengthening Of A Response Because It Is Followed By The Stimulus
Observational Learning- A Type Of Learning That Occurs When An Organism’s Responding Is Influenced By The Observation Of Others, Who Are Called Models
Operant Conditioning- A Form Of Learning In Which Voluntary Responses Come To Controlled By Their Consequences
Optimal Foraging Theory-The Idea That The Food-Seeking Behaviors Of Many Animals Maximize The Nutrition Gained In Relation To The Energy Expended To Locate, Secure, And Consume Various Foods
Phobias- Irrational Fears Of Specific Objects Or Situations
Positive Reinforcement- Reinforcement That Occurs When A Response Is Strengthened Because It Is Followed By The Presentation Of A Rewarding Stimulus
Preparedness- A Species-specific Predisposition To Be Conditioned In Certain Ways And Not Others
Primary Reinforcers- Events That Are Inherently Reinforcing Because They Satisfy Biological Needs
Punishment- An Event That Follows A Response That Weakens Or Suppresses The Tendency To Make That Response
Reinforcement- An Event Following A Response That...

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