cation A Classification of Motivation Theories (Content vs. Process)
Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” perspective. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” perspective.
1. Content Theories about Motivation
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
When motivation theory is being considered the first ...view middle of the document...
Alderfer, simplified Maslow’s theory by categorizing hierarchy of needs into three categories:
Physiological and Safety needs are merged in Existence Needs,
Belonging needs is named as Relatedness Needs,
Self-esteem and Self-actualization needs are merged in Growth Needs
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg, introduced his Two Factor Theory in 1959. He suggested that there are two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways:
1) Hygiene factors: A series of hygiene factors create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them as inadequate or inequitable, yet individuals will not be significantly motivated if these factors are viewed as adequate or good. Hygiene factors are extrinsic and include factors such as salary or remuneration, job security and working conditions.
2) Motivators: They are intrinsic factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth.
The hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction. Herzberg theory conforms with satisfaction theories which assert that “a satisfied employee tends to work in the same organization but this satisfaction does not always result in better performance”. In other words, satisfaction does not correlate with productivity.
McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory
in his 1961 book named as “The Achieving Society”, David McClelland identified three basic needs that people develop and acquire from their life experiences .
Needs for achievement: The person who have a high need for achievement seeks achievement and tries to attain challenging goals. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. The person who have a high achievement need likes to take personal responsibility.
Needs for affiliation: The person who have a high need for affiliation needs harmonious relationships with people and needs to be accepted by other people. (People-oriented rather than task-oriented).
Needs for power: The person who have a need for power wants to direct and command other people. Most managers have a high need for power.
Although these categories of needs are not exlusive, generally individuals develop a dominant bias or emphasis towards one of the three needs. Entrepreneurs usually have high degree of achivement needs.
Incentive theory suggests that employee will increase her/his effort to obtain a desired reward. This is based on the general principle of reinforcement. The desired outcome is usually “money”. This theory is coherent with the early economic theories where man is supposed to be rational and forecasts are based on the principle of “economic man”.
2. Process Theories about Motivation
Process theory is a commonly used form of scientific research study in which events or occurrences are said to be the result of certain input states leading to a certain outcome (output) state, following a...