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Cost Accounting Essay

9286 words - 38 pages


Cost pool––a grouping of individual cost items. Cost tracing––the assigning of direct costs to the chosen cost object. Cost allocation––the assigning of indirect costs to the chosen cost object. Cost-allocation base––a factor that links in a systematic way an indirect cost or group of indirect costs to a cost object.

4-2 In a job-costing system, costs are assigned to a distinct unit, batch, or lot of a product or service. In a process-costing system, the cost of a product or service is obtained by using broad averages to assign costs to masses of identical or similar units. 4-3 An advertising campaign for Pepsi is likely to be very specific to that individual ...view middle of the document...

4-7 The main concern with the source documents of job cost records is the accuracy of the records. Problems occurring in this area include incorrect recording of quantity or dollar amounts, materials recorded on one job being “borrowed” and used on other jobs, and erroneous job numbers being assigned to materials or labor inputs. 4-8 a. b. Two reasons for using an annual budget period are The numerator reason––the longer the time period, the less the influence of seasonal patterns, and The denominator reason––the longer the time period, the less the effect of variations in output levels on the allocation of fixed costs.


4-9 Actual costing and normal costing differ in their use of actual or budgeted indirect cost rates: Actual Normal Costing Costing Direct-cost rates Actual rates Actual rates Indirect-cost rates Actual rates Budgeted rates Each costing method uses the actual quantity of the direct-cost input and the actual quantity of the cost-allocation base. 4-10 A house construction firm can use job cost information (a) to determine the profitability of individual jobs, (b) to assist in bidding on future jobs, and (c) to evaluate professionals who are in charge of managing individual jobs. 4-11 The statement is false. In a normal costing system, the Manufacturing Overhead Control account will not, in general, equal the amounts in the Manufacturing Overhead Allocated account. The Manufacturing Overhead Control account aggregates the actual overhead costs incurred while Manufacturing Overhead Allocated allocates overhead costs to jobs on the basis of a budgeted rate times the actual quantity of the cost-allocation base. Underallocation or overallocation of indirect (overhead) costs can arise because of (a) the Numerator reason––the actual overhead costs differ from the budgeted overhead costs, and (b) the Denominator reason––the actual quantity used of the allocation base differs from the budgeted quantity. 4-12 Debit entries to Work-in-Process Control represent increases in work in process. Examples of debit entries under normal costing are (a) direct materials used (credit to Materials Control), (b) direct manufacturing labor billed to job (credit to Wages Payable Control), and (c) manufacturing overhead allocated to job (credit to Manufacturing Overhead Allocated). 4-13 Alternative ways to make end-of-period adjustments for underallocated or overallocated overhead are as follows: (i) Proration based on the total amount of indirect costs allocated (before proration) in the ending balances of work in process, finished goods, and cost of goods sold. (ii) Proration based on total ending balances (before proration) in work in process, finished goods, and cost of goods sold. (iii) Year-end write-off to Cost of Goods Sold. (iv) Restatement of all overhead entries using actual indirect cost rates rather than budgeted indirect cost rates. 4-14 A company might use budgeted costs rather than actual costs to compute direct labor rates because it...

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