Baggili & Rogers - Self-reported cyber crime: An analysis on the effects of anonymity and pre-employment integrity
Copyright © 2009 International Journal of Cyber Criminology (IJCC) ISSN: 0974 – 2891 July - December 2009, Vol 3 (2): 550–565 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This license does not permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission.
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Keywords: Self reported Cybercrime, Anonymity, Pre-employment Integrity, Cyber
Crime engagement. Introduction Cyber crime is an unlawful act in which a computer/s is/are used as means of committing a crime against a person, property or the government (Babu & Parishat, 2004). Sukhai (2004) explained that an FBI and Computer Security Institute annual survey of 520 companies and institutions reported more than 60% unauthorized use of digital computer systems during a period of 12 months and 57% of all break-ins involved the Internet. Even though these numbers seem large, Sukhai (2004) describes that about 60% of cyber attacks are not even detected. Research indicates that only about 15% of exposed attacks are reported to law enforcement agencies (Sukhai, 2004). In the newer 2006 FBI and Computer Security Institute annual survey of 313 companies and institutions, it was
Assistant Professor and Director of the Advanced Cyber Forensics Research Laboratory, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates. Email: Ibrahim.Baggili@zu.ac.ae 2 Professor, Department of Computer and Information Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 550
© 2009 International Journal of Cyber Criminology. All rights reserved. Under a creative commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 India License
International Journal of Cyber Criminology Vol 3 Issue 2 July - December 2009
found that the total losses attributed to security breaches amounted to $52,494,290 dollars (Gordon et al., 2006). Finally, in the 2008 CSI Computer Crime and Security Survey, it was noted that there is an average loss of $500,000 with corporations experiencing financial fraud (related to computing) and an extra average of $350,000 loss at companies that experienced “bot” attacks. The abovementioned figures illustrate that the capital losses attributed to unauthorized use of computers have a substantial damaging bearing on today’s economy. This is also reinforced in the significant average capital loss in the 2008 survey. Due to the negative impact of cyber crime on society, it becomes imperative to understand the social and psychological implications of the cyber crime phenomenon. Many researchers have focused their efforts on technical aspects related to decreasing cyber crime through computer technology/science prevention and incident response techniques. Rogers (2003) explained that little psychological research is conducted on cyber crime focusing on factors such as personality traits/individual differences, motivation and situational factors associated with the cyber criminals. It is now 2009 and this statement remains true. Two major questions whose answers will remain of important value in social scientific research on cyber crime still need to be examined: What attracts people to cyber criminal activities? And what personality traits/individual differences are associated with cyber criminals? Literature suggests that one of the major...