Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and various state anti-discrimination laws prohibit discrimination in employment based on sex, race, national origin, and religion. James and Minors (1996) conclude that although most organizations believe in equal opportunity policies, they do not practice inclusion. Most of these organizations struggle with issues of gender, race, sexual orientation, and disability of their employees. Many of these organizations develop institutional racism which closes the door for employment for many people of color.
The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in 2009 received 93,277 charges of discrimination. The workplace ...view middle of the document...
They describe what is considered a more traditional focus on discrimination. Organizational researchers conclude the more traditional focus of discrimination is the denial of housing or employment rather than everyday discrimination such as race, sex, and gender. (Deitch, Barsky, Butz, Chan, Brief, Bradley, 2003)
Deitch et al (2003) state “these incidents are certainly negative events in the lives of those who experience them; however, the discrimination faced by stigmatized group members, such as racial minorities, is far more pervasive than the study of major discriminatory events would lead one to believe.”
Racism is not disappearing as research has shown it is being replaced by noticeably less forms such as ‘Modern racism’ (open) or ‘Aversive racism’ (subtle).
Individuals with these views tend to overlook racism and focus more on nonracial based rationale which tends to keep them in denial of being prejudiced. (Deitch et al 2003).
Racial discrimination is a part of American history regrettably. Most employers were forbidden from discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national original after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Coleman, 2004). Yet in 2011, there are still racial differences in wages, hiring, occupation, and employment. Does racial discrimination exist now more than ever? Yes racial discrimination does persist now more than ever.
II. Has gender discrimination against working women declined?
Gender discrimination, also known as sexual discrimination, is the practice of letting a person’s sex unfairly become a factor when deciding who receives a job, promotion, or other employment benefit. It most often affects women who feel they have been unfairly discriminated against in favor of a man (Answers.com).
Although recent years have seen a reduction of the gap between compensation paid to men and that paid to women, female workers still receive significantly less than men. In 2000 the average income of women was 68 percent that of men. By 2008 it had risen to 70 percent. (2011, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.) At this rate, another fifty years will pass before women will achieve equivalency in pay. Consider this. Although women made up 46.5 percent of the U.S. workforce in 2000, women held only 11.7 percent of the board of director positions of Fortune 500 companies, and only 12.5 percent of the corporate officers of those companies were female. Given the average rate of increase in appointments of women to corporate offices, it has been projected that in 2020, when more women than men will be employed in the workforce, men will still hold nearly 75 percent of such positions in Fortune 500 companies. Opponents of federal and state anti-discrimination laws battle to win over the public those social and cultural factors greatly donate to the reality of a second-class standing for working women. But even if social and cultural behaviors are contributing elements,...