Domestic Violence amongst African American Women
Domestic violence occurs in an estimated 4 million intimate relationships each year in the United States. Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior in which a person uses coercion, deception, harassment, humiliation, manipulation, and/or force to establish or maintain power and control over his or her intimate partner. Economic, emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, and verbal tactics are used by perpetrators to control and obtain power over their partners. Domestic violence crosses ethnic, racial, age, national origin, sexual orientation, religious, and socioeconomic lines.
The majority of victims of domestic violence in ...view middle of the document...
In addition, it has also been used to refer to a broad range of acts of interpersonal violence involving victims and offenders who are in some way related to one another. (Gelles, R. J. (1997) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.) For example, domestic violence may refer to child abuse, sibling violence, intimate partner abuse, or even elder abuse (Gelles, 1997).Recognition of a phenomenon as a social problem is a necessary precursor for the development of social policy and services to address it (Blumer, 1971). In Japan, domestic violence was for the most part neither recognized nor addressed prior to 1992, and only recently has it gradually been acknowledged as a serious social problem. National and local governments’ responses have only just begun. This recent increase in public awareness is largely attributable to the efforts of grassroots women’s organizations that paralleled the rise of international movements against gender-based violence during the early 1990s. Action-oriented research projects1 on domestic violence conducted by these organizations have played an important role in shaping public of domestic violence in Japan.
African Americans, including African American Women suffer deadly violence from family members at rates decidedly higher than for other racial groups in the United States. However, it is observed that research concerning family violence among African Americans is inadequate. There are many factors African American women face such as the breakdown of families, unemployment and underemployment. Poor schools, inadequate vocational skills and training also contribute to this social problem. As well as bad housing, the influence and use of drugs, and the density of liquor stores in the inner city contribute to the problem of domestic violence. All of these ingredients may compound and coalesce into a strong undercurrent of frustration that can lead to domestic violence. Victims of domestic violence face an array of decisions, most of them bad, which keep them in the abusive relationship, panel members explained.
Many Black women may find it harder to leave a battering relationship than White women. The reasons for this are unclear, but some possible explanations include the following: African American women have fewer options in their search for a marital partner than do White women; African American women on average, have a lower income level than that of most White women; Black women are reluctant to call the police because they see the racial injustice in the criminal justice system; community support systems including women’s shelters and other service programs may be less available to them and they may view the shelter system movement as something mainly to benefit White women. Unfortunately, many Black women resort to “homicide” as an answer to the violence and battering they encounter.
Statistically domestic violence is a shocking numerical issue. Across the United States, up to 3 million girls and women will be...