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For other uses, see Reading (disambiguation).
Miss Auras by John Lavery, depicts a woman reading a book.
Youth reading, Persian miniature by Reza Abbasi, 1625-6
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Language Writing Writing system Orthography Braille
Types of Reading
Slow reading Speed reading Subvocalization
Learning to Read
Learning to read Comprehension Spelling Vocabulary Reading disability Dyslexia Reading for special needs
Alphabetic principle Phonics Whole language Phonetically Intuitive English
Literacy Functional illiteracy Family literacy English orthography
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Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax and context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema (schemata theory).
Other types of reading are not speech based writing systems, such as music notation or pictograms. The common link is the interpretation of symbols to extract the meaning from the visual notations.
2 Reading skills
2.1 Skill development
3.1 Reading rate
3.2 Types of tests
4 Cognitive benefits
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Volunteer reads to a girl at the Casa Hogar de las Niñas in Mexico City
Addy Vannasy reads aloud to children at a village "Discovery Day" in Laos. Reading aloud is a common technique for improving literacy rates. Big Brother Mouse, which organized the event, trains its staff in read-aloud techniques: Make eye contact with the audience. Change your voice. Pause occasionally for dramatic effect.
Currently most reading is either of the printed word from ink or toner on paper, such as in a book, magazine, newspaper, leaflet, or notebook, or of electronic displays, such as computer displays, television, mobile phones or e-readers. Handwritten text may also be produced using a graphite pencil or a pen. Short texts may be written or painted on an object.
Often the text relates to the object, such as an address on an envelope, product info on packaging, or text on a traffic or street sign. A slogan may be painted on a wall. A text may also be produced by arranging stones of a different color in a wall or road. Short texts like these are sometimes referred to as environmental print.
Sometimes text or images are in relief, with or without using a color contrast. Words or images can be carved in stone, wood, or metal; instructions can be printed in relief on the plastic housing of a home appliance, or myriad other examples.
A requirement for reading is a good contrast between letters and background (depending on colors of letters and background, any pattern or image in the background, and lighting) and a suitable font size. In the case of a computer screen, it is important to be able to see an entire line of text without scrolling.
The field of visual word recognition studies how people read individual words. A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking. This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead fixate to some words while apparently filling in the missing information using context. This is possible because human languages show certain linguistic regularities.
The process of recording information to be read later is writing. In the case of computer and...