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Down Syndrome Essay

262 words - 2 pages

Down syndrome (DS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a chromosomal condition caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.[1] Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans.[2] It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability (mental retardation, or MR) and physical growth, and a particular set of facial ...view middle of the document...

[1][3] (MR has historically been defined as an IQ below 70.) A large proportion of individuals with Down syndrome have a severe degree of intellectual disability.[1]

Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866.[4] The condition was clinically described earlier in the 19th century by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Edouard Seguin in 1844.[5] Down syndrome was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Dr. Jérôme Lejeune in 1959. Down syndrome can be identified in a baby at birth, or even before birth by prenatal screening.[1][6] Pregnancies with this diagnosis are often terminated.[7]

The CDC estimates that about one of every 691 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome.[8]

Many children with Down syndrome graduate from high school and can do paid work,[9] and some participate in post-secondary education as well.[10] Education and proper care has been shown to improve quality of life significantly

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