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Encyclopaedia Britannica Essay

1095 words - 5 pages

| Study Case (Group Task) |
| Management Control SystemKelas Eksekutif B / 28-A |

Nama | : | GROUP XSuci Ramdania (14/374456/PEK/19730)Yuyun Yunengsih (14/374758/PEK/19875)Stephanus Rendy (13/360930/PEK/19205) |
Semester | : | 2 |
Dosen | : | Rusdi Akbar, PhD, Ak., CMA, CA |
| | |

JAKARTA
03/2015

Case 2-2
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (B)

1.0 LATAR BELAKANG
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (EBI) adalah suatu perusahaan yang didirikan sekitar pertengahan abad kedelapan belas di Skotlandia. Perusahaan ini menerbitkan buku kumpulan ilmu pengetahuan yang dirangkum dalam bentuk ensiklopedia. Pada awal mulanya, EBI berkembang dengan sangat pesat dan menerbitkan beberapa kumpulan ...view middle of the document...

Dengan adanya reputasi yang baik dan diakui oleh berbagai kalangan, termasuk didalamnya konsumen dan penerbit ensiklopedia lain yang menjadikan EBI sebagai pedoman mereka, EBI mencatat rekor penjualan tertinggi pada tahun 1990, yaitu sekitar $650 Juta.
Permasalahan dimulai pada saat Microsoft memasuki target pasar yang sama dengan EBI, dengan menjual ensiklopedia yang dikeluarkan oleh Funk & Wagnalls dalam bentuk CD-ROM pada tahun 1993. Produk ini dinamakan ENCARTA dan dijual dengan harga sangat murah, yaitu $100, bahkan diberikan secara gratis oleh penjual komputer.

2.0 ANALISA PERMASALAHAN
Dengan masuknya Microsoft kedalam target pasar yang sama, ini menjadikan suatu ancaman tersendiri bagi EBI dan ditanggapi dengan strategi,
* Menjual Compton seharga $57 Juta
* Mengeluarkan versi lengkap dari semua volume ensiklopedia yang mereka punya dalam bentuk CD dan memberikan lisensi kepada kalangan bisnis sebesar $2,100 per tahun
* Tidak melakukan perubahan apa-apa terhadap target pasar
Sebaliknya Encarta semakin menjadi ensiklopedia berbasis multimedia dengan penjualan tertinggi. Hal ini menyebabkan penurunan penjualan dari EBI. EBI menanggapi dengan mengeluarkan versi CD-ROM ke konsumen tetapi harga yang ditetapkan masih sangat tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan Encarta. Penjualan EBI masih tetap menurun dengan berkembangnya internet.
Disini EBI masih terus berusaha untuk menentukan strategi marketing terbaik dan produk apa yang harus mereka jual ke pasar. Pada tahun 1994, versi online dijual kepada pihak universitas, dengan harga yang sangat tinggi, sehingga tidak semua universitas dapat menjangkaunya. Pada tahun 1995 dikeluarkan versi CD-ROM dengan harga $200 tetapi hal ini tidak dapat membantu menaikkan keuntungan perusahaan.
Jika dikaitkan dengan teori yang ada, perlu dilakukan analisa yang terhadap strategi yang dilakukan oleh EBI. Dimana seharusya, sebuah perusahaan harus memperhitungkan kompetensi utama yang dimiliki dengan kesempatan pada industri yang ada. Hal ini dapat dilihat pada diagram pada halaman berikutnya.

Dalam hal ini, strategi yang seharusnya dijalankan oleh EBI pun, harus lebih melihat kepada perusahaan dengan satu jenis industry (Single Industry Firm), sesuai dengan produk yang EBI jual. Pada jenis ini, perusahaan biasanya melihat kepada kompetensi utama yang mereka miliki untuk dapat berkembang di industri tersebut. Hal ini sudah dilakukan pada tahun-tahun awal, dengan melihat beberapa faktor yang menjadi kekuatan dari EBI,
* Menyediakan informasi untuk ensiklopedia yang sangat lengkap dan terpercaya
* Didukung oleh sumber informasi yang didapat dari ilmuwan dan cendikiawan ternama
* Dipercaya oleh banyak pihak baik itu konsumen dan kompetitor (reputasi yang baik)
Selain itu, dapat dilihat bahwa EBI sama sekali tidak memperhitungkan ancaman dari luar dan tidak mampu mengidentifikasi potensi mereka untuk bersaing. EBI tidak siap dengan adanya perubahan pasar dan ekspektasi dari konsumen, serta...

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