Policies and Theories
American Intercontinental University
There are many theories that influenced many of the policies that we have today. Such as the Graffiti reduction program which has been influences by the argument of windows theory. Then there is the Neighborhood watch program which shows how the social disorganization theory has been influential to the program. Finally we have the Midnight Basketball program who is connected by the differential association theory. Below, all these theories and policies will be defined and there will be a better understanding on how all of these policies assisted the from decreasing violence ...view middle of the document...
Although graffiti is a form of street art, its presence is perceived as a sign of moral decay. This perception has led to a number of graffiti reduction strategies as a way of promoting quality of life for residents and communities. Although very colorful, graffiti creates fear among locals as they feel their neighborhood is being lost to criminals and gangs. The art is also linked to notoriety. If allowed to thrive, it shows that the community is unconcerned about its appearance. Additionally, graffiti is considered as a form of vandalism of both public and private property. Such arguments have justified the essence of graffiti reduction programs with the aim being reducing fear and addressing the motives offenders.
Neighborhoods watch programs refer to crime prevention interventions that stress on empowering citizens through public education. The approach teaches citizens to help themselves through identifying and reporting criminal and suspicious events in their localities. The approach calls for formation of vigilante groups that embark on observing and creating awareness as a strategy of preventing crime (Muller, 2015). In addition, the neighborhoods watch groups focus on promoting social interaction and watching out for every member of the community. The groups support the active patrol and work together with law enforcement officers, thus promoting quality of life, improving security, and reducing criminal activities.
The strategies adopted by neighborhood watch programs heavily borrow from social disorganization theory. The theory provides framework for installing necessary cultural and structural factors to influence social order across the community. Social disorganization theory argues that criminal behavior is triggered by the level of social integration among neighbors. Good social integration acts as self-regulatory mechanism. If the community is weakly integrated, it results in disorganization which creates conditions that allow negative group behaviors and criminality to thrive. The process of forming watch groups strengthens the integration of the society. It also promotes adoption of structural elements to address conflicting cultural standards (Rengifo, 2009). The theory also highlights the significance of good neighborhood in policing. The framework has not only guided implementation of effective social controls but also vibrant community policing that has addressed the concern of negative behaviors and crimes. The theory also calls for effective policies to address socioeconomic disparities to improve ecological culture and good neighborhood.
The Midnight Basketball program was a federal strategy that was adopted to engage youthful Africa Americans in productive activities. The program...