AFRICA NAZARENE UNIVERSITY
UNIT TITLE : BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS
UNIT CODE : BCM 308
TASK : GROUP WORK STUDENT NO.
NAME : NEWTON WANYAMA 12M03EBA074
: LEWIS MUNDIA 12J03ABA007
: JAMES IKUA 12S03EBA003
: MARY ODERO 12S03ABA011
: GLADYS MUMO 12J03EBA011
: PENINAH MBUTHIA
: GEORGE OLIWA
QUESTION : Discuss the ethical issues in research?
DUE: 8 JULY 2013
LECTURER: HANIEL NJOGU MUCHIRI
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Research ethics are codes or guidelines that help to reconcile value conflicts. Although ethical codes provides direction, the decision made in research must be reached by considering the specific alternatives available.
The churls made in each case weigh the potential risks of the participants. Ethical codes in research stipulate areas of responsibility to participants, clients, respondents to colleagues and professional associates.
The important of adhering to ethical norms in research:
* Norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data promote the truth and avoid error.
* Since research often involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among many different people in different disciplines and institutions, ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. For example, many ethical norms in research, such as guidelines for authorship, copyright and patenting policies, data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration. Most researchers want to receive credit for their contributions and do not want to have their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely.
* Many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public. For instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the human subjects protections, and animal care and use are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public.
* Ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research. People more likely to fund research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research.
* Many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, and health and safety. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, students, and the public. For example, a researcher who fabricates data in a clinical trial may harm or even kill patients, and a researcher who fails to abide by regulations and guidelines relating to radiation or biological safety may jeopardize his health and safety or the health and safety of staff and students.
Codes and Policies for Research Ethics
Given the importance of ethics for the conduct of research, it should come as no surprise that many different professional associations, government agencies, and universities have adopted specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics. Many government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Food and Drug Administration...