CONTRIBUTION OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
The behavioural science approach is concerned with the social and psychological aspects of human behaviour in organisation. The understanding of human behavior was enhanced by contributions not only from the traditional disciplines of psychology, sociology, and anthropology, but also from social economics, political science, linguistics, and education. The interrelationships of these various disciplines are now referred to collectively as the “behavioral sciences.”
The behavioral science approach is oriented toward economic objectives, concerned with the total climate, and consistent with the development of interpersonal competence. It is a humanistic approach. The use of groups and employee participation in the achievement of organizational objectives, including the management of change, is now a formally recognized field of study in universities worldwide.
...view middle of the document...
Management should achieve fusion between organisational goals and human needs.
3. Individual behaviour is closely linked with the behaviour of the group to which he belongs. A person may be inclined to resist pressures to change his behaviour as an individual. But he will readily do so if the group decides to change its behaviour. With work standards laid down by the group, individuals belonging to that group will resist change more strongly.
4. Informal leadership, rather than the formal authority of supervisor, is more important for setting and enforcing group standards of performance. As a leader (manger) may be more effective and acceptable to the subordinates if he adopts the democratic style of leadership. If the subordinates are encouraged to participate in establishing the goals, there will be positive effect on their attitude towards work. Changes in technology and methods of work, which are often resisted by employees, can be brought about more easily by involving the employees in planning and designing the jobs.
5. By nature most people enjoy work and are motivated by self-control and self-development. It is for the managers to identify and provide necessary conditions for the human potential to be used in the service of the organisation. The manager’s attitude towards human behaviour should be positive.
The behavioural scientists have shown how human beings bring to their task aspects of behaviour, which the effective manager should profitably understand. After all, it is individuals and groups with which a manager is concerned and while organisational roles are designed to accomplish group purposes, people must fill these roles.
Thus, the behavioural sciences have provided managers with a systematic understanding of one of the most critical factors in the process of management—the human element. Insights evolving from that understanding have been used to design work situations that encourage increased productivity. It has enabled organisations to formulate programmes to more efficiently train workers and managers, and it has effects in numerous other areas of practical significance.