2: INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, AND VALUES
MARS Model And Individual Behavior – The MARS model consists of:
* Motivation = Personality & Value – Motivation,
* Ability = Self-Concept & Perception – Ability,
* Role Perception = Emotions & Attitudes / Stress – Role Perceptions
These three factors come together during situational factors that lead to behavioral result such as task preference & performance, organizational citizenship (cooperation and helpfulness beyond required job duties), CWBs (Counterproductive Work Behaviors / harm organization), joining/staying with an organization and maintaining attendance. All of these factors reflect individual ...view middle of the document...
Many employees do not have clear role perception, as many as 76% in some areas. Role clarity exists in three forms. One, employees have clear role perceptions when they understand the specific task assigned to them. Two, how well employees understand the priority of their various task and performance expectations. This is highlighted in the typical dilemma that is quantity over quality. Three, understanding the preferred behaviors or procedures for accomplishing the assigned task.
* Situational Factors – Conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain or facilitate behavior and performance. Example having a proper work environment on getting paid a competitive wage.
Types Of Individual Behavior
There are many varieties of individual behavior; most can be categorized into the following five categories.
* Task performance – refers to the goal directed behaviors under the individuals control that support organizational behaviors.
* Organizational citizenship – very few companies would survive if employees performed only their formal job duties. They also must engage in Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) In other words companies excel when their employees go the “extra mile” beyond their job duties. In a nutshell they are supporting other employees and the company as a whole.
* Counterproductive work behaviors – (CWBs) are actions that harm the work place rather it is harassing co-workers, stealing, ect.
* Joining and staying with the organization – all though the previous individual behaviors are important, if qualified people don’t join and stay with the organization, none of these performance behaviors would occur.
* Maintaining work attendance – getting employees to show up. Presenteeism, attending work when one’s capacity to perform is significantly diminished by illness or other factors.
Personality In Organization
Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that are characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics. Personality is determined mostly by one’s nature or nurture. Nature - Heredity explains about 50% of behavioral tendencies and 30% of temperament. Nurture – Socialization, life experiences, and learning also affect personality. Personality stabilizes throughout adolescence.
Five Factor Model of Personality “Big Five”
* Emotional stability – Organized, goal-focused, disciplined, and dependable. Best overall predictors of job performance.
* Agreeableness – Trusting, helpful, flexible. Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness.
* Neuroticism – Anxious, self-conscious, and depressed.
* Openness to Experience – Creative, curious, autonomous, nonconforming. Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness.
* Extraversion – Outgoing, talkative, energetic. Linked to sales and management performance. The opposite is introversion, which consist of people who are...