BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A fraternity is an organization, formed chiefly for social purposes having secret rites and name consisting of Greek letters. Fraternities get a lot of bad publicity as with that hazing problems at many colleges and universities, but there is another side to fraternities that many people do not see. Fraternities do have plenty of social events, service projects and other school and community related events. There are several factors such as personal, social, emotional and community factors that influence students to join fraternities. In order to join a fraternity, a neophyte has to undergo different rites or servicing in order to be accepted. The ...view middle of the document...
On college campuses, fraternities may be divided into groups: social, service, professional and honorary.
Fraternities can be organized for many purposes, including university education, work skills, ethics, ethnicity, religion, politics, charity, chivalry, other standards of personal conduct, asceticism, service, performing arts, family command of territory, and even crime. There is almost always an explicit goal of mutual support, and while there have been fraternal orders for the well-off there have also been many fraternities for those in the lower ranks of society, especially for national or religious minorities. Trade unions also grew out of fraternities such as the Knights of Labor.
The ability to organize freely, apart from the institutions of government and religion, was a fundamental part of the establishment of the modern world. In Living the Enlightenment, Margaret C. Jacobs showed the development of Jurgen Habermas' 'public space' in 17th century Netherlands was closely related to the
College and university fraternities
Fraternities have a history in American colleges and universities and form a major subsection of the whole range of fraternities. In Europe, students were organized in nations and corporations since the beginnings of the modern university in the late medieval period, but the situation can differ greatly by country.
In the United States, fraternities in colleges date to the 1770s, but did not fully assume an established pattern until the 1820s. Many were strongly influenced by the patterns set by Freemasonry. The main difference between the older European organizations and the American organizations is that the American student societies virtually always include initiations, the formal use of symbolism, and the lodge-based organizational structure (chapters) derived from usages in Freemasonry and other fraternal organizations such as the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias.
The oldest active American college fraternity is The Kappa Alpha Society founded in November 1825, at Union College in Schenectady, New York, followed closely by Sigma Phi Society (1827) and Delta Phi Fraternity (1827) at the same school. Other fraternities are also called literary societies because they focus on the literary aspect of the organization and its role in improving public speaking.
In Germany the German Student Corps are the oldest academic fraternities. Twenty-eight were founded in the 18th century and two of them still exist.
At Swedish universities, especially those of Uppsala and Lund, students have organized in nations since the 16th century. These organisations are open to all students who wish to join. Parallel to the nations both Uppsala and Lund play host to a large number of university related secret societies, for both students and older academics.
Gangs are prominent in the larger cities and urban areas in the United States, in prisons and jails while many branches of the original gang are present in...