FUNDAMENTALS CONCEPT OF PLANNING
A plan may be classified according to time horizon/duration as follows
1. LONG-TERM OR PERSPECTIVE PLAN- extends from 10 to 20 or even 25 years. Educational planning has to be based on a concept of the future. The planners should envision the kind of society; the kind of political, intellectual and social leadership.
2. MEDIUM-TERM PLAN-usually 4-5years, is prepared against the backdrop of a long-term perspective plan. It has proven operationally to be most efficient. It defines the goals and targets with greater clarity and provides a definite basis of action.
3. SHORT TERM PLAN needs to be adopted only as an inevitable alternative to medium-term planning and on an emergency basis. The introduction of "rolling plan´ has eliminated the need for short term plan.
4. SINGLE-PURPOSE PLAN- is an administrative operation, which is usually ...view middle of the document...
I NNOVATIVE PLANNING-is concerned with improving, developing the system as a whole. It is known as DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
3. MULTI AND SINGLE OBJECTIVE PLANNING Whatever is type or form, planning has goals and objectives. GOAL is an ideal and should be expressed in abstract terms; while an objective is capable of both attainment and measurement.
OBJECTIVE should be measurable, result oriented, specific, realistic, attain table, and time bounded
4. INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE PLANNING
INDICATIVE PLANNING - merely lays down general guidelines and is advisory in nature.
IMPERATIVE PLANNING- involves specific directives.
APPROACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
The significant job of planning education must be based on well-defined objectives; actually the definition of objectives defends on the choice that a nation makes out of alternative approaches to educational planning. Several approaches have been discussed in literature and adopted by different countries for planning educational activities, but all of them maybe summarized under three major categories
2. MANPOWER/PERSON POWER APPROACH
3. INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY APPROACH
SOCIO-CULTURAL APPROACH is the determining of educational needs and development in terms of current demands for education at different levels on the basis of population, age distribution, and prospective area of national income, social aspirations and cultural goals.
MANPOWER/PERSON POWER APPROACH
is gearing of educational efforts to the fulfillment of national manpower requirements. In other words, the planners should have to foresee the future occupational structure of the economy of the nation and to plan educational system that will provide the requisite number of personnel with qualification that the structure demands.
INVESTMENT EFFECIENCY APPROACH
is the determining of the investment to be made in education according to the rate of return
or benefit of effectiveness