This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Going The Sitance Essay

1847 words - 8 pages

In the 1970s through the 80s organisations were seen to be facing the dilemma of employee commitment. [2] Jay Conger (University of Southern California) has observed that in the midst of their change efforts, companies were resorting to extensive downsizing as well as to new organisational arrangements such as flatter hierarchies and strategic business units. While often improving bottom-line performance, these initiatives took their toll on worker satisfaction and empowerment. In the process, the old social contract of long-term employment in return for employee loyalty was broken. The net result was the disenfranchising of many in the workforce. Moreover, this occurred just at the moment ...view middle of the document...

Transformational leaders engaged with followers and sought new ways of working so as to achieve more for both themselves and followers than they would ordinarily. Transactional leaders engaged with followers as part of an exchange process that involved tangible rewards for superior performance and mutual support. Burns drew from the literature on traits, leadership styles and research on the behaviour of leaders and followers, as well as his own observations. [4]

In more detail, the transformational leader was seen as someone who engages with others in such a way that leader and follower raise one another to a higher level of motivation and morality, a level not easily explained by traditional instrumental exchanges. These higher aspirations or goals of the collective group are expected to transcend the individual and result in the achievement of significant change in work unit effectiveness. Burns believed that all managers could be classified by leadership style according to their propensity for transactions with, versus transformation of, subordinates.The transactional leader, on the other hand, was seen as operating within the existing system or culture, had a preference for risk avoidance, paid attention to time constraints and efficiency, and generally preferred process over substance as a means for maintaining control. The skilful transactional leader was likely to be effective in stable, predictable environments where charting activity against prior performance is the most successful strategy. This leader prototype was consistent with an equitable leader-member exchange relationship where the leader fulfilled the needs of followers in exchange for performance meeting basic expectations.

Bernard Bass [5], as much as anyone, has advanced Burns’ theories. In Bass’ view [6], transformational leaders seek new ways of working, seek opportunities in the face of risk, prefer effective to efficient answers and are less likely to support the status quo. Transformational leaders don’t merely react to environmental circumstances, they attempt to shape and create them. They may use transactional strategies when appropriate but tend to use symbolism and imagery to solicit increased effort by raising the level of intellectual awareness about the importance of valued outcomes, by raising or expanding individual needs and by inducing a belief in transcending self-interest for the sake of the team or organisation.

In 1985 Bass developed an instrument to measure both transactional and transformational leader behaviour and to investigate the nature of the relationship between these leader styles and work unit effectiveness and satisfaction. The resulting instrument, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), was conceptually developed and empirically validated to reflect the complementary dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership with sub-scales to further differentiate leader behaviour. [7] The MLQ has since acquired a...

Other Papers Like Going The Sitance

Jail Responsibilities Essay

589 words - 3 pages Jail Responsibilities Monique Priorello September 23, 2012 One of the main responsibilities of a jail is to give the officers the correct “Police Correspondence” courses. This is because these courses give the officers the effective basic training that they need to do things such as; Writing of Memoranda, Police Reports, and Civilian Letters. What needs to be done first is make sure that there are NO errors. This means in

Mgt330 Essay

638 words - 3 pages Starbucks Nefertiti Wright Sangita Patel October 15, 2012 STARBUCKS 2 STARBUCKS - 1 - [no notes on this page]I. Job description a. Baristas II. Job specifications a. Duties III. Form of departmentalization STARBUCKS 3 Starbucks Starbucks have been named in the 100 best companies to work for. Starbucks has many job opportunities for people, which require the right job specifications. The employees create uplifting

Fight Club

917 words - 4 pages Fight Club is a story of the narrator’s struggle to gain control over his life. He is in search for an identity in the form of manhood. His masculinity is so repressed because of the absence of a father figure in his life. Because of this he creates Tyler, his alternate personality. Tyler is nothing like anyone the narrator has met, he is self assured and completely free. The narrators alternate personality Tyler Durden is the ultimate alpha

The Powers Of The Health And Safety Representative

254 words - 2 pages The Powers of the Health and Safety Representative A health and safety representative has the power to: Identify Workplace Hazards The health and safety representative has the power to identify workplace hazards. This power is usually exercised by conducting workplace inspections. Obtain Information from the Employer The health and safety representative is entitled to the same information available to a joint committee member. Under the Act

Lesson Plan

6476 words - 26 pages following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard.  There is no comment on the characters or their thoughts. No interpretations are offered.  The reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain.  The reader has to interpret events on his own. [pic] Theme -- The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight.  It is the author's underlying


1227 words - 5 pages marketing is a relatively new concept linked to these developments. In the main, it is concerned with decisions for integrating or standardizing marketing actions across a number of geographic markets. This does not rule out any customization of the marketing mix to individual countries but suggests that organisations should capitalize on similarities between markets to build competitive advantage. Compelling cases can be put forward for both a

Facing Poverty With A Rich Girl's Habit

783 words - 4 pages Facing poverty with a rich girl’s habit Adele Strader Professor Chryst English Composition October 22, 2012 Facing poverty with a rich girl’s habit was written by Suki Kim and published in the New York Times on November 21, 2004. The most important point that Suki want to make was that (1) what we have in life can be taken away in an instant (2) do not go bankrupt in South Korea (3) that a person must adapt and endure

3-4-50 Paper

572 words - 3 pages -4-50 paperLack of exercise is a key contributor to disease and death among many people in the United States, regardless of age. It is a well-known fact that exercise results in a healthier lifestyle. Along with tobacco use and poor nutrition, lack of exercise is one of the main issues that people have which leads to high blood pressure, obesity, and other serious health problems. According to a study by UCSD School of Medicine and SDSU


836 words - 4 pages Miguel Beatrice Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals and business firms carry out production and exchange of goods and services through complex transactions involved in prices and markets. By extension called capitalist higher social class of this economic system ("bourgeoisie"), or to the common form would the individual interests of capital owners in both companies, shareholders and patterns, also called capitalism


1177 words - 5 pages Homelessness in America Homelessness in America is a social problem that we are faced with on a daily basis. Despite the vast number of research done by Americans on homelessness, little is still known about the effect that it has on our society. The overall image that emerges from the effects of homeless people

Mental Health Community Service Essay

509 words - 3 pages Ladesca Smith Nursing 162 Community Volunteer Service Assignment Why you chose this agency? I chose this Sharing God’s Love, because I was interested in what kind of services they provide. I also wanted to know if there was any help out there for the people in need with mental illnesses. I also had lots of my kid’s old clothing that I needed to get rid of, so I donated it to them. Describe the population the agency serves. The

Related Essays

Lafarge S.A Essay

2924 words - 12 pages presented in the case study. The analysis is centered on four Organizational behaviour concepts which include Values, Teamwork, Motivation and Creativity. The initiatives entail different strategies deployed by Lafarge in handling challenges encountered in either cases of business expansion or continuity at different plant locations. Care is taken to outline the activities and results associated with these initiatives and to show how these align

Finance Essay

665 words - 3 pages people needed to maintain a strong company is determined by the companies needs to keep their customers happy in a timely and positive way. Products need to go out in an acceptable amount of time, the quality has to be above and beyond what is expected and associates have to work as a team to achieve what is expected of them. Hard decisions have to be made when the work is not there for the associates and the company is not going to pay for

Analysis Of Operation Blue Star And Its Effects On The Gandhi Dynasty

934 words - 4 pages the worst cases burnt alive, stoned to death, resulting in many Sikhs choosing to live in groups away from the public, afraid of going out and living alone, due to their obvious physical differences that set them apart and stood them out from Hindus. It is estimated that in the three month period following the assassination of Indihar Gandhi over 5,000 Sikhs were murdered, in these rallies/riots. Indihar Gandhi ignited a fire she would soon

Regretful Decisions Essay

930 words - 4 pages Regretful Decisions There are many individuals in a child’s life that helps mold them into a well-rounded adult. In most cases, this guidance comes from the child’s parents or other older, but in Sonny’s case, this guidance was expected from his older brother. In the short narrative, Sonny’s Blues, Sonny’s life was adversely affected by the decisions that his older brother made. The decisions that his brother made include leaving Sonny to