Habits Essay

7233 words - 29 pages

Psychodynamics is the systematic study and theory of the psychological forces that underline human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation.[1]
The original concept of "psychodynamics" was developed by Sigmund Freud.[2] Freud suggested that psychological processes are flows of psychological energy in a complex brain, establishing "psychodynamics" on the basis of psychological energy, which he referred to as libido.
The psychodynamic psychotherapy is a less intensive form compared to classical psychoanalysis practiced by strict Freudians, demanding sessions only once weekly instead of 3-5 times weekly which was typical for traditional psychoanalysts.
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 A focus in psychodynamics is the connection between the energetics of emotional states in the id, ego, and superego as they relate to early childhood developments and processes. At the heart of psychological processes, according to Freud, is the ego, which he envisions as battling with three forces: the id, the super-ego, and the outside world.[4] Hence, the basic psychodynamic model focuses on the dynamic interactions between the id, ego, and superego.[10] Psychodynamics, subsequently, attempts to explain or interpret behavior or mental states in terms of innate emotional forces or processes.
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History
Psychodynamics was initially developed by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Melanie Klein. By the mid 1940s and into the 1950s, the general application of the "psychodynamic theory" had been well established.
In his 1988 book Introduction to Psychodynamics - a New Synthesis, psychiatrist Mardi J. Horowitz states that his own interest and fascination with psychodynamics began during the 1950s, when he heard Ralph Greenson, a popular local psychoanalyst who spoke to the public on topics such as “People who Hate”, speak on the radio at UCLA. In his radio discussion, according to Horowitz, he “vividly described neurotic behavior and unconscious mental processes and linked psychodynamics theory directly to everyday life.”[11]
In the 1950s, American psychiatrist Eric Berne built on Freud's psychodynamic model, particularly that of the "ego states", to develop a psychology of human interactions called transactional analysis[12] which, according to physician James R. Allen, is a "cognitive behavioral approach to treatment and that it is a very effective way of dealing with internal models of self and others as well as other psychodynamic issues."[12] The theory was popularized in the 1964 book Games People Play, a book that sold five million copies, giving way to such catch phrases as “Boy, has he got your number!”.
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Freudian psychodynamics
According to American psychologist Calvin S. Hall, from his 1954 Primer in Freudian Psychology:
“ | Freud greatly admired Brücke and quickly became indoctrinated by this new dynamic physiology. Thanks to Freud’s singular genius, he was to discover some twenty years later that the laws of dynamics could be applied to man’s personality as well as to his body. When he made his discovery Freud proceeded to create a dynamic psychology. A dynamic psychology is one that studies the transformations and exchanges of energy within the personality. This was Freud’s greatest achievement, and one of the greatest achievements in modern science, It is certainly a crucial event in the history of psychology. | ” |
At the heart of psychological processes, according to Freud, is the ego, which he sees battling with three forces: the id, the super-ego, and the outside world.[4] Hence, the basic psychodynamic model focuses...

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