HARNESSING THE SCINCE OF INFLUENCE
Implications for Nonprofit Leaders
Robert Cialdini suggests that at least four rules offer unique opportunities for nonprofit development. There are:
People try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided them. All of us are taught we should find some way to repay others for what they do for us. Most people will make an effort to avoid being considered a moocher, ingrate, or person who does not pay their debts. But when reciprocity is exploited to created unnatural obligations, where only one part benefits, and the other feels manipulated, the strategy may work in short term but will likely fail in time.
2. Commitment ...view middle of the document...
If you want someone to do something for you, be sure to let them see that many other people are already doing it or are willing to do it.
People tend to like others who appear to have similar opinions, personality traits, background, or lifestyle. People love to say ‘yes’ to people they know and like. People also tend to like and trust anything familiar. To build the familiarity is to have frequent pleasant contacts.
POWER DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
Power can be defined as the potential of an individual (or group) to influence another individual or group. Influence, in turn, is the exercise of power to change the behavior, attitudes, and/or values of that individual or group. To evaluate the exercise of power and influence, we should pay attention on these criteria: effectiveness for the individual, effectiveness for organization, and ethical.
Organizations are political entities, because it consists of interdependent individuals (and group) with divergent interests.
There are challenges in Managerial Life, such as:
* Interdependency: Managers are dependant on others to get things done, and the other way around.
* Diversity: Differences between managers and those on whom they depend
* Power Gap: Managers don’t have authority over many, or most, of the people on whom they dependent
The more interdependence, diversity, and resource scarcity in an organization, the more political conflict are often happen. The prevention factors can be done, are: a) building a common perspective about how critical resources should be distributed and critical contingencies handled is more likely; b) discover mutually beneficial resolutions; c) negotiating win-win resolutions. Solutions can be done by Law of Reciprocity and Network. Beside that, to eliminate political conflict, managers should have eliminate diversity.
Determinants of an Individual Power:
* Sources of Positional Power’
* Formal Authority: Position in hierarchy & prescribed responsibilities
* Relevance: Relationship between task and organizational objectives
* Centrality: Position on key networks
* Autonomy: Amount of discretion in a position
* Visibility: Degree to which performance can be seen by others
* Sources of Personal Power
* Expertise: Relevant knowledge & skills
* Track Record: Relevant experiences
* Attractiveness: Attributes that others find appealing and identify with
* Effort: Expenditure of time and energy
In assessing power dynamics, the very first step need to be done, is...