HEALTH PROMOTION; REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Public health concepts and public health nursing was formed in the mid 18th century in response to communicable diseases, claiming the lives of people in large numbers. Over the years, the leading cause of death has shifted and transitioned from infectious deceases to chronic diseases. In today’s modern world advancement in health care and technology call for quality of life and achievement of optimum health for all people. The face and scope of public health transformed to accommodate this need, originating the idea of health promotion. This paper focuses on the role of nursing in health promotion and levels of health promotion.
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Intervening and motivating the patients whenever required, in the process of their adapting to healthy behaviors and life styles to prevent diseases.
The varied settings a nurse can implement his/her health promotion strategies are; community based health centers, school health programs, occupational health programs, home health, long care setting like nursing home and skilled nursing facilities, mental health services and hospitals. In the primary settings like schools and community centers the nurse’s focus is on prevention of diseases by empowering the individual with knowledge on preventive measures and screening for various risk factors that lead to diseases. In advanced care settings the nurse plan the care and teaching in a way to help the patients to recover from illness, teach them how to modify their life style to prevent recurrence and how to attain the maximum quality of life. The nurse provides education regarding resources and support services to aid in the process of recovery and rehabilitation.
Levels of Health Promotion
The three levels of health promotion prevention are primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. Primary prevention is done by promoting healthy behaviors and making awareness among healthy individuals about the benefits of good health and importance of staying away from risky behaviors to prevent diseases. For example, the school health nurse educates schools children about benefits healthy sexual behaviors, the accepted norms of sexual behavior, risk and dangers of unhealthy sexual behaviors and practices in relevance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The target group o f primary prevention is healthy people.
Secondary prevention is aimed at people who are still healthy but are at risk of contracting diseases. For example people at risk of contracting sexually transmitting diseases like HIV. In this case Secondary prevention may include targeting a particular age group of young adults and people who live among HIV positive patients. The nurse do the necessary screenings and assessments, teach the patients the life style changes and precautions they may need to take in order to prolong and prevent contracting the disease the patient is at risk.
In tertiary prevention the patients have already contracted the...