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Healthcare Issues In The United States

1092 words - 5 pages

Health Care Issues in the United States

Lori Schaffer
Professor Gilliland
Health Services Organization
July 15, 2011

Health Care Issues in the United States
Our health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure. Numerous behaviors and lifestyle patterns affect our health, such as: exposure to violence, vehicular accidents, alcohol, drugs, and infectious agents. (Williams/Torrens, p 67)
Alcohol consumption and illicit drug use are examples of personal decision making and patterns of behavior that have tremendous adverse effects on health and on the economy. Alcohol abuse can lead to diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver, various cancers, intestinal disorders, ...view middle of the document...

Product development, approval, and distribution
3. Diffusion, adoption, and utilization of the product
The first stage of medical technology involves scientific research to develop an idea for a treatment, drug, medical device, or piece of medical equipment. This can take many years and a lot of money to develop. While the second stage of medical technology involves moving from product research to actual implementation. During this phase there are three basic questions that must be answered. “First, are there an obvious need and a viable market for this product? Second, can an appropriate product (i.e. drug, device, piece of equipment) be developed that accomplishes what the basic science suggests it can? Lastly, can the necessary tests and clinical trials get carried out that will with the important regulatory approvals required for public sale and use of the product?” (Williams/Torrens pp 26-39)
In the third phase of the technology development is to actually take the drug, device, or technology and making it generally accepted, available, and used by clinicians and patients. During the development phase, a lot of money and time is spent on conducting appropriate clinical trials that must be completed to eventually gain FDA approval. After achieving approval from the FDA, the development process goes into an active marketing process to encourage use of the product. The critical next steps involve convincing the individual clinician of the effectiveness of the drug, product, or device, and convincing the appropriate hospitals and medical organizations to make it available. (Williams/Torrens p 27-28)
In describing the major trends in population demographics over the past 80 years, one must note that the human population growth of the last century has been truly phenomenal. It required only 40 years after 1950 for the population to double from 2.5 billion to 5 billion. This doubling time is less than the average human lifetime. The world population passed 6 billion just before the end of the 20th century.  Present estimates are for the population to reach 8-12 billion before the end of the 21st century. During each hour in time, more than 10,000 new people enter the world, a rate of about 3 per second. The factors affecting global human population are fertility, mortality, initial population, and time.
The global population reached one billion in 1804. In 1927, some 123 years later, it passed two billion.  Sixty years later, in 1987, the world population was five billion, and 12 years later, in...

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