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Heat Pump Essay

3545 words - 15 pages

february 2004 • tec 6 • SuMMary

a N IN trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S
chris arkins
This note TEC 6, originally published in February 1999, was reviewed by Chris Arkins in January 2004. This summary page includes recent updates to the topic since publication.


actIONS tOwarDS SuStaINable OutcOMeS
Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. The industry has seen a growing emergence of ground source heat pump (GSHP) installations throughout Australia over the last five years. A broad spectrum of ...view middle of the document...

Environmental Benefits
• Water Efficiency – Ground heat exchangers require no make up water, hence significant water savings are achieved when compared to cooling tower systems that rely on the evaporation of water and the subsequent cooling effect to reject heat from the water. Low maintenance – Ground heat exchangers require no regular chemical dosing or make up water. Energy efficiency – Ground source heat pumps achieve greater efficiencies due to constant return water temperatures from the ground. With air cooled equipment, efficiency varies with changes in ambient air temperature. On hot days, air cooled systems are less efficient as more energy is required to achieve the same cooling effect. Flexibility – Ground source heat pumps can adapt to residential and commercial buildings. They can be placed in new buildings or used as retrofits in existing buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions – Use of fossil fuels is reduced due to the energy efficient operation. Energy costs – energy costs are reduced by 10 to 30%. Aesthetics – Noise and visual exposure associated with roof top equipment is eliminated. Legionnaires’ control – Since cooling towers do not form part of the system, the risk of Legionnaires’ disease is eliminated. Ground source heat pumps are therefore particularly attractive for health care facilities.

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changes in the Industry
The principles of GSHPs have not changed, however the following indicative costs reflect current market costs compared to those published in the previous note. Installation costs vary according to site conditions, site accessibility, ground structure, size of heat exchanger and appointed contractor. The following unit rates are suitable for preliminary costing purposes. Final costing should obviously be confirmed by a qualified professional for each specific project. For drilling, piping and grouting of vertical bore holes, horizontal header pipework and horizontal trenching from the building line to the ground heat exchanger field, allow around $45 to $50 per meter of pipe.

february 1999 • tec 6 • PaGe 1

a N IN trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S
chris arkins
Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. Whilst still a developing market in Australia, ground source heat pumps (GSHP) offer environmental advantages over more commonly used air conditioning systems. This Note introduces the GSHP and provides an overview of applications, benefits and system types.

1.0 INtrODuctION
Heat rejection is fundamental to all air conditioning systems. Whilst ground heat rejection, or geothermal heat rejection as it is commonly called, is seldom used in Australia, it is not a new technology and has been used for many years in other countries. Ground source heat pumps have often been misunderstood or misapplied. This has led to...

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