History of performance technology
Human performance technology (HPT) refers to the systemic and systematic identification and elimination of obstacles to organizational and individual performance. HPT is a body of techniques and knowledge that has been proved to be effective and useful in organizing the conditions of performance to enable targeted results to be achieved consistently. HPT uses many interventions from other disciplines which includes human resources management, instructional systems design, total quality management, behavioral psychology, process improvement and organizational development (Piersol & Paris, n.d). HPT is a maturing discipline and its development ...view middle of the document...
During the closing periods of the nineteenth century Fredrick Taylor addressed the weaknesses in the subjective performance standards through combining time-and-motion studies with economic theories. Taylor set up standards whereby levels of performance among workers are linked with the amount of reward. This is considered one of most fundamental contributions of Taylor to the human performance field (Pershing, 2006). In this regard, workers were anticipated to work as mere extensions of machines and to ensure maximum efficiency and productivity by submitting to the purpose of the machine rather than the machine submitting to their purpose.
Social science motivation theories
Humans approach to management dates back to the 1920s and 1930s when theorists started questioning the value of financial incentives (Pershing, 2006). Therefore new studies mushroomed with focus on the worker rather than focusing on productivity for instance Hawthorne studies at Western Electric (Pershing, 2006). The view was that other motivators could have a bearing on the productivity of the workers. Management was thought to shift its focus from productivity only to building collaboration to help in goal achievement. For the first time development of people became a center of concern. Abraham Maslow in 1943 came up with the psychological theory of needs, which would have a big impact on the performance management field. Herzberg and McGregor continued popularizing Maslow’s idea (Pershing, 2006). Maslow considered needs as internal forces which lead to internal tensions when activated. This tension offers motivation to the worker to act in ways that lead to satisfaction of needs. However according to Maslow satisfying needs is a hierarchy and can be satisfied in a series of succession from basic needs to...