History of Psychology
University of Phoenix
History and Systems of Psychology
May 11, 2014
History of Psychology
The history of psychology goes back thousands of years to the early Greeks. The roots of psychology are closely related to philosophy. Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline. The early Greeks such as Aristotle believed “The heart was the seat of the mind”, and the brain was more so a filter to calm heat the heart produced. While the philosopher and physician Hippocrates believed “The brain was the seat of sensation as well as ...view middle of the document...
Toward the end of the seventeenth century Empiricism through vision began. George Berkeley led this concept, which focuses on sensory process. Berkeley’s studies of visual perception expressed that our judgment of size, distance and location of objects totally depends on visual sensory experience. Berkeley’s idea is known as subjective idealism.
Upon the 19th century research of the nervous system began. The Bell-Magendie Law surfaced. Magendie was given more credit due to publishing but as time matured accreditation was given to both men. To simply explain the law Magendie studied the anterior and posterior roots of the spinal cord. Finding the posterior roots controlled sensation. Upon lengthy trials he successfully severed the anterior cord proving continued sensation with no movement. But when both cords are severed there is no movement or sensation left to measure. The results of this study were spot on to Bells study “The Specific Energies of Nerves”.
Physiological perceptions induced the idea of localization of brain functions. Cranioscopy by Gall proved that each side of the brain controlled the opposite side of the spinal cord. Phrenology began with Gall’s discoveries expressing that the brain is the organ of the mind, the mind is composed of numerous faculties both cognitive and emotional, and each faculty is associated to a certain part of the brain. Some people have more faculties than others and skull growth responds to the shape of the brain.
The examination of phrenology denounced Galls theory. Flouren’s method of ablation was proven by removing portions of the brain to pinpoint faculties not by shape of the brain and rigidity of the skull, but by action upon removal of certain sections from the brain. The accident of Phineas Gage helped provided more definitive proof for the examination of phrenology. Shrapnel from a missile explosion taking a huge portion of his...