Population and environmental impact
How do societies deal with growing numbers?
1. Demography: the study of population size and composition
2. Fertility: number of births in a population
3. Mortality: number of deaths in a population
4. Migration: movement of people from one area to another
5. Immigration: number of people who enter a nation-state
6. Emigration: number of people who leave a nation-state
7. Predict population numbers using RNI ( crude birth rate- crude death rate) and doubling time ( number of years it takes for a population to double)
a. Malthusian Theory: population will one day exceed amount of food available
b. Demographic Transition Theory: societies that move from agrarian to industrial go through four stages of development, eventually controlling their fertility
c. Predict food shortage, global warming, and overpopulation
9. Population control programs: nations promote ...view middle of the document...
Crude death rate: the number of deaths for every 1000 people each year
16. Age-specific death rate: the number of deaths for every 1000 persons of a given age group
17. Infant mortality rate: the number of children for every 1000 born alive who die before they reach the age of one year
18. Life span: the maximum length of time a person can possibly live
19. Population pyramids: tools that visually represent data related to the age and sex of a country’s populations
20. Baby boomers: children that born after WWII through the early 1960s
21. Population momentum: a surge in growth due to a large number of people who are of birthing age
22. Puspull or neo-classical migration theory: suggests that migration depends on the supply and demand for labor, both in the sending area and the receiving area.
23. Rate of natural increase: determines population growth and/or decline by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate and then dividing by 10.
24. Birth dearth: declining birth rates.
25. Doubling time: refers to the number of years it takes for a population to double.
26. Malthusian theorem: a population projection that suggests the population will exceed the available food supply because populations grow at geometric rates, while food supplies grow at arithmetic rates.
27. Demographic transition theory: a projection that suggests people control their own fertility as they move from agrarian to industrial societies.
28. Environmental sociology: is the study of how the environment influences society, and vice versa
29. Human exemptionalism: is the belief that considers humans as being different from other species on Earth.
30. Carrying capacity: is the number of specific species that can exist in a given environment.
31. Underpopulation: occurs when a species’ population lives under the carrying capacity, resulting in abundant resources
32. Overpopulation: occurs when a species’ population lives beyond the carrying capacity, resulting in too few resources
33. Environmental justice: is the impact of environmental factors on social classes.
34. Pro-natalist: means concerned with promoting population growth
Anti-natalist: means concerned with limiting population growth