How Far had Northumberland established a Protestant church in England by 1553?
After the downfall of Somerset in 1549 John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, assumed the role of protector. By this point however the Church in England was already experiencing a state of unofficial Protestantism where there was no official church doctrine, freedom of religious speech, the removal of church images was in place and the First Prayer Book was introduced in 1548.
In the first years of Northumberland's control he shaped Protestantism further in terms of ceremonial change. Up to 1552 parliament removed laws against ...view middle of the document...
The 42 Articles and the fabrication of a short catechism followed in line with realigning the church with the articles being based on the Protestant justification of salvation through faith alone and the catechism enforcing the work of Protestant Pastor John Calvin.
Despite all this change there was still opposition from some reformers showing a complete Protestant church had not been achieved by 1553. The New reformed Ordinal and the subsequent swearing of an oath to saints enraged the radical Protestant Hooper as Protestant beliefs say that anyone who believes in Jesus is a Saint therefore the oath is false to their beliefs. Opposition continued at the introduction of the Second Book of Common Prayer against the expectation of kneeling at communion. As well the 42 Articles never became Parliamentary law.
Overall however by 1553 to a large extent Northumberland had established a Protestant church with very little opposition from 1549 onwards. The 'Black Rubric' Proclamation counteracted the opposition to the Second Book of Commons by stating kneeling was out of 'good order' rather than idolatry leaving the question of the complete establishment of a Protestant church only on the lack of enforcement of the 42 Articles.