‘How may conflict resolution and conflict management approaches be
applied in educational settings?’
This assignment will review the nature of conflict, from psychologist theories to what form it takes in an educational setting. In order to apply conflict resolution and conflict management effectively in an educational setting, it is important to understand the background disciplines of conflict and theories behind how humans behave in social settings. Comprehending how human behaviour initiates is the key stepping stone to resolving and managing conflict behaviour between humans. We will examine what the concept of ...view middle of the document...
Conflict can occur within an individual alone, and have no effects from others; this is known as intrapersonal. Interpersonal is conflict between two individuals only. Intragroup conflict occurs in a specific group of people where all or some of the members are unable to meet an agreement or fail to communicate correctly. The group or members usually share common social ideologies in order to be a part of such a group. Intergroup conflict occurs “between groups and combinations of groups, small or large” (Sherif, 1966, p1).
Conflict can arise over the tension caused by an individual’s struggle to agree with an opposite opinion to that of their own; or even with internal difficulties. It can be the result of a defence mechanism; individuals or groups defending their opinions and ways of thinking – there are a variety of differences between people that flares up and leads to conflicting situations. Conflict is a natural feature of life. It is something everyone experiences, but not all conflict experiences are the same.
Brief History of Social Psychology: Conflict Theories.
“Psychology is the scientific study of mental processes and behaviour. Psychologists observe and record how people… relate to one another and to the environment” (World Book Encyclopedia, 1993). Psychology has many different fields of study, which are all centred on the functions of the human mind and characteristics of individuals or collective groups. The field of psychology in which is most related to this review is social psychology: “That branch of psychology that concentrates on any and all aspects of human behaviour that involve persons and their relationships with other persons, groups, social institutions and society as a whole”. (Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, 2009, p791).
When studying individual or inter relationships of humans, it is important to consider the social environment of each individual in order to understand their interaction. Social psychology examines and researches all behavioural aspects of human relations, but early psychologists ignored the study of conflict and human behaviour. According to Plon, it did
not appear in psychological works and literature until 1958, “and even there it is important to notice it arrives on stage timidly” (Plon, 1974, p391). The study of conflict within human relations became popular after the second world war and the “last moments of the cold war”
(Plon, 1974, p391), possibly due to psychologists attempting to study the cause of such wars and how humans can behave in such conflicts against others.
Darwin, Marx and Freud dominated the study of human behaviour in the early years of psychology, including some work which may link slightly to causations of conflict (Deutsch et al., 2006 p13). The main feature of their studies in relation to human behaviour and conflict was based on “competitive struggle” (Deutsch et al., 2006). Darwin believed all humans struggle in order to exist, and those who...