Cardiovascular Case Study
A 32-year old nurse who has rheumatic fever as a child noticed a persistent tachycardia and light-headedness. Upon examination, chest x rays showed an enlarged left atrium and left ventricle. ECG analysis showed atrial fibrillation. There was also mild pulmonary congestion. Cardiac evaluation resulted in the following information:
Cardiac output (CO) 3.2L/min. SV = 40mls
Blood pressure (BP) 100/58 mm Hg
Left Atrial pressure (LAP) 16 mm Hg
Right ventricular pressure (RVP) 44/8 mm Hg
Heart sounds revealed valvular regurgitation
1. Answer all questions with material that explains your ...view middle of the document...
The first heart sound (S1) would be lengthened and pronounced. When the heart pumps (contracts) part of one or both flaps collapse backward into the left atrium. In some cases, the prolapsed valve lets a small amount of blood leak backward through the valve, which may cause a heart murmur. Also, on a EKG, there is no visible P wave.
3. Describe, using surface anatomy, the location at which this valvular disorder
could best be heard. (2pts)
This mitral valve disorder could be best heard at the left sternal edge, between the 4th and 5th ribs and near the apex of the heart. A Chest X- Ray could show an enlarged left atrium and left ventricle. The mitral valve is located on the left side of the heart therefore would be in the middle of the mediastinum at the left sternal edge.
4. Draw a normal EKG, label and explain what the deflections wave mean. (2pts. ) Do you expect to see a normal EKG for this patient? What will it look like? ( 3 points)
5. Considering the medical problem that this patient is experiencing, what are the causes of 1. tachycardia, 2. light-headedness, and 3. mild pulmonary congestion? ( 6 pts, address each one)
According to The American Heart Association, tachycardia is a heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute...