2.1 – Human Resource Planning
* Human resource or workforce planning: analyzing and forecasting the number of workers and the skills of those workers that will be required by the organization to achieve its objectives
2.1.1 – Identify the constraints and opportunities provided by demographic change.
2.1.2 – Discuss the significance of changes in labour mobility, both domestic and international.
* Separated into occupational mobility of labour (based on workers’ willingness to take jobs requiring different skills) and geographical mobility of labour (based on willingness to move locations for jobs)
* High labour mobility helps a country achieve economic efficiency if jobs ...view middle of the document...
2.1.4 – Describe methods of recruitment, appraisal, training and dismissal.
* Recruitment/selection involves the following processes:
Establish nature of job vacancy and draw up a job description detailed list of key points and responsibilities about the job, attracting right people for the job as potential recruits have an idea
Draw up a person specification detailed list of qualities, skills, qualifications based on the job--description, helping to eliminate candidates who do not match criteria
Prepare a job advertisement reflecting requirements of job and personal qualities looked for
Draw up short list of candidates, based on application forms/personal details (i.e. use of CV)
Conduct interviews, candidates assessed according to different factors such as achievements, intelligence, skills, interests, personal manner, physical appearance, and personal circumstances
* Appraisal: related to development of staff, analyzing (annually) worker performance against pre-set/agreed targets and objectives
Performance management/job evaluation is useful for setting targets, give constructive feedback to employees, and feedback from staff
However, it can be time consuming and demotivating for workers; monitoring targets is difficult
Methods of appraisal include upwards, essay, 360 degree, rating system, Management by Objectives (employees meeting set targets), peer, and self
* Training is used to ensure candidates to be well-equipped
Induction training: an introductory training programme given to all new recruits to familiarize them with systems/processes within business, organizational structure, and layout of business site
On-the-job training: instruction at the business site on aspects of the job, often conducted by HR managers or departmental training officers
Off-the-job training: all training undertaken away from the business (e.g. specialist training centre, course organized by external body
* Dismissal: disciplinary action for employees being unable to do the job to quality standards, or upon breaking crucial conditions of employment
Generally, dismissals are due to employee incompetence, misconduct, gross misconduct, or legal requirements from skills/requirements necessary
Unfair dismissal mostly prominently consist of discrimination and constructive dismissal (employer making it difficult to work)
* Redundancy (retrenchments): when a job is no longer required through falls in demand or change in technology, employees get dismissed redundancies may happen if there is no possibility of anyone in the workforce taking the position, or due to budget cuts requiring streamlining of workforce
Businesses can lay-off workers through voluntary redundancies or compulsory redundancies
2.1.5 – Discuss advantages and disadvantages of different methods of recruitment, appraisal and training.
Internal Recruitment | External Recruitment |
* Applicants may be already well known to...