Integration Of Working Memory Training Essay

3112 words - 13 pages

Integration of Working Memory Training
Working memory has been a growing topic of interest in the field of Speech Language Pathology. It affects all aspects of children’s development, including speech, language, reading, and classroom success. Working memory deficits are prevalent in people with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injuries, learning disabilities, specific language impairment (SLI), and intellectual disabilities (Van der Molen, Van Luit, Van der Molen, Klugkist, & Jongmans, 2010). With the rising awareness of how working memory deficits can effect children’s development, the question of whether speech language pathologists ...view middle of the document...

With poor working memory skills, it is easy for children to fall behind and perform poorly while in the classroom (St. Clair, Stevens, Hunt, & Bolder, 2010).
There are three components to working memory. The central executive system is responsible for attention control and controls the cognitive processes (Montgomery, Magimairaj, & Finney, 2010; Schuchardt, Maehler, & Hasselhorn, 2008). It also regulates information flow (Montgomery, 2002). The central executive system is then broken down into two subsets, the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad (Schuchardt et al., 2008). The phonological loop, which is split even further into the phonological store and the sub vocal rehearsal process, is responsible for the maintenance of auditory information (Schuchardt et al., 2008; St. Clair et al., 2010). The visual-spatial sketchpad is responsible for remembering and processing visual and spatial information (Schuchardt, Gebhardt, & Maehler, 2010).
Working memory is highly involved in children’s scholastic success. It is key to fluid intelligence and the development of arithmetic and reading (Van der Molen et al., 2010). Working memory can also be a predictor in children’s literacy, math, and comprehension skills (St. Clair et al., 2010). Their working memory abilities at school entry can also predict their overall academic attainment through adolescence (Boudreau & Costanza-Smith, 2011). It has been shown that poor performance on working memory assessments translates into poor performance on curriculum assessments (St. Clair et al., 2010). Children with poor WM tend to do poorly in their curriculum activities because the activities have high memory demands. Mistakes are usually made in errors with following directions, remembering instructions, and keeping track with multilevel tasks (St. Clair et al., 2010). Working memory deficits can be found in regularly developing children and children with co occurring disorders as well (Schuchardt et al., 2008; Van der Molen et al., 2010).
Co occurring language deficits and working memory deficits are usually found in children with disabilities such as specific learning disabilities and ADHD (Archibald, Joanisse, & Edmunds, 2011; St. Clair et al., 2010). In the inattention dimension of ADHD, research has shown a strong association with working memory deficits (Martinussen & Tannock, 2006). Working memory has shown to play a critical role in children’s ability to control attention (Martinussen & Tannock, 2006). From problems with controlling attention in children with ADHD, working memory also affects children with reading disabilities who were found to have deficits in phonological processing, storage, and executive functioning (Maehler & Schuchardt, 2009). The central executive is also impaired in children with arithmetic learning disabilities as well (Maehler & Schuchardt, 2009). For children with SLI, ADHD, and different specific...

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