paper, leaving the residue on the impermeable substance/filtrating medium and the filtrate to pass through. |
Dissolved solids in liquids
Evaporation | If the liquid in the mixture is more volatile (boiling point is lower) than the soluble solid, the soluble solid will remain while the liquid evaporates. The procedure employs the use of an evaporating dish and a Bunsen burner. |
Crystallisation | Another method of dissolved solids from a liquid mixture (solution)The impure salt is dissolved in water at a high temperature to create a concentrated solution.The mixture is then cooled and the salt crystallises, leaving the impurity in the solution.This crystallised slat contains much less ...view middle of the document...
g. sodium chloride
* First name: ususally the element on the left or the periodic table
* Secind name: use the first part and add “ide” at the end
* Mg + C = Magnesium chloride
* Zn + S = Zinc Sulfide
* Cu + N = Copper Nitride
* Same rules except use “ate” instead of “ide”
* Mg + C + O = Magnesium carbonate
* Zn + S + O = Zinc Sulfate
* Cu + N + O = Copper Nitrate
Metals with more than one ionic charge
* Cu+1 + Cl = Copper (I) Chloride
* Pb+2 + F = Lead (II)
(Covalent compounds) Non metals + non metals e.g. Carbon dioxide
* Use prefixes
1 = mono | 3 = tri | 5 = penta | 7 = hepta |
2 = di | 4 = tetra | 6 = hexa | 8 = Octa |
* N2 O4 = Dinitrogen Tetraoxide
* Cl2 O7 = Dichloride heptoxide
Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered
1 = meth | 3 = prop | 5 = pent | 7 = hept | 9 = Non |
2 = eth | 4 = but | 6 = hex | 8 = Oct | 10 = Dec |
Identify data sources, plan and choose equipment and perform first-hand investigation to separate the components of a naturally occurring or appropriate mixture such as sand, salt and water
Gather first-hand information by carrying out a gravimetric analysis of a mixture to estimate its percentage composition
Aim: TO become familiar with several separation techniques used in the process if physical separation AND To determine the percentage of iron and sand gravimetrically
Hypothesis: The cooper sulfate will be able to be dissolved in water and removed first, then the iron filings can be removed from the sand mixture through magnetic separation. Hence allowing the experiment to successfully answer the aim and isolate/separate all three components in the mixture.
Retort stand | Tripods | Bunsen burners | Beaker | Retort ring |
Evaporating dish | Watch glass | Spatula | Magnet | Gauze mat |
1. Weigh watch glass to be used
Weigh watch glass + mixture
Mass of mixture = (mass of watch glass + mass of mixture) – mass of watch glass
2. Remove iron using magnet.
(Existing/initial mass) – (watch glass + remaining mixture) = mass of iron filings
3. Mass of current mixture = (Mass of current mixture – mass watch glass/beaker)
4. Separate the copper sulfate from the sand by adding water and putting gently/lightly boiling it until the copper sulfate dissolves. Use filtration to separate the sand from the dissolved copper sulfate (and water).
5. Mass of sand = (Mass of initial mixture – mass of current mixture)
6. Use evaporation or crystallisation to separate the copper sulfate from the water
* Use of measuring cylinder, electric weighing scale
Validity: Opened windows to have ventilation
Used different watch glasses and apparatus each time we separated we isolated or separated each component.
Conclusion: The components were effectively able to separated out using the physical separation techniques of...