Q7. Discuss the Contribution of either Julius Nyerere or Kwame Nkrumah, in the promotion of Pan Africanism.
Pan Africanism is an ideology and movement that encourages the solidarity of Africans world wide.It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to “unify and uplift” people of African descent.
The ideology asserts that the fate of all African peoples and countries are intertwined. At its core Pan-Africanism is “a belief that African peoples, both on the continent and in the Diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny”
The largest Pan-African organization is the African Union.
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After graduating from that institution, Nkrumah returned to Lincoln University, where he joined the faculty as a teacher (Adi, 2003: 145).
It was while studying in the United States that Kwame Nkrumah began to flesh out his views on Pan-Africanism, economics, and African development. He attended meetings of a multitude of political organizations, including the Council on African Affairs, the Communist Party, and Marcus Garvey’s UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). In his book Pan-African History, Hakim Adi describes Nkrumah’s time in the United States as a time when he “became active in the African Students’ Association, which was formed in 1941 by West African students, the majority of whom were from Nigeria and the Gold Coast. Nkrumah was elected president of this organization, wrote for its publication African Interpreter and spoke at numerous meetings” (Adi, 2003: 143).
In 1945, Nkrumah chose to attend London University. It was at London University that Nkrumah fully threw himself into pan-African politics. In London, Nkrumah came face-to-face with the colonial question, and loved the symbolic aspect of fighting for colonial freedom in the heart of the world’s greatest colonial power (Nkrumah, 1962: 31).
It was also in 1945 that Nkrumah wrote his famous pamphlet, “Towards Colonial Freedom.” In the essay he laid bare his issues with capitalism, colonialism, the hypocrisy of “mandates” and “trusteeship” colonies, and his solutions to the colonial oppression. In one passage, Nkrumah lays out his plan for a colonial liberation movement: One of Nkrumah’s biggest accomplishments of this period was playing a large role in helping to organize the historic fifth and final Pan-African Congress. The event, held in 1945 in Manchester, England, was organized by Nkrumah and fellow Pan-Africanist George Padmore, and was attended by such luminaries as Kenyan independence activist Jomo Kenyatta and American intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois (Adi, 2003: 143).
After the success of the conference, Nkrumah helped found the West African National Secretariat. He was also the general-secretary of the group, which was formed with a goal of united West African independence. During his remaining time in Britain, Nkrumah also became more and more closely associated with the British Communist Party, and became the leader of the “Circle,” a group dedicated to creating a Union of African Socialist Republics (Adi, 2003: 144). In 1947, with the intention of turning his plans for independence into reality, Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast.
In Ghana/ Schooling.
While in Achimota College Nkrumah led the rise of influential organization known as National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA). The objective of this organization was to create united British West Africa. Leaders of NCBW were drawn from western-educated and trained African businessmen. They were to create constitutional, legal and educational reforms that would lead to unification of Africans. They...