Market Essay

5863 words - 24 pages

市 场
 
市场的概念
市场这个名词大家都很熟悉,但很多人对于市场的认识或认知都是来自于经济学,而营销学对市场的认识和经济学并不完全相同。
经济学站在一个宏观的视角上,看到的是市场的全貌,它看到市场上有买方,有卖方,有买卖双方,因此,市场常常被表述为商品交换关系的总和,市场是体现供给与需求之间矛盾的统一体。供给方代表的是卖方,卖方想高价卖,而买方想低价买,这在客观上是一对矛盾。这种矛盾在市场上又必须统一,因为只有统一了,卖方和买方各自的销售和采购愿望才能实现。认识这种矛盾与统一的最一般的规律性,是经济学的任务。
 
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|市 场 |
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|买卖双方交换关系的总和,商品供给与需求的矛盾统一体。 |
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市场调研的意义
市场调研是营销工作的第一步,是一个非常重要的基础性工作,它能够告诉我们该做什么。只有收集到大量、及时、准确的信息,才能减少营销决策的盲目性,使之更加具有针对性和更加科学化。
 
2.市场调研的前提
(1)营销理念
那么,调研什么呢?在回答这个问题之前,必须有一个正确的、做好营销工作的理念。营销理念解决的最核心的问题就是企业和市场的关系。
企业和市场是什么关系呢?顾客是上帝,企业赖以生存的基础是市场,换句话说也就是顾客。顾客是企业赖以生存的客观基础,因此企业的一切努力都应该是为了全心全意为顾客服务。
(2)市场认识
市场营销活动的另一个基本前提是市场认识。不同的购买目的,形成了不同的市场类别,一类是由真正意义上的消费者组成的买主集团,我们通常把它叫做市场。这类买主比较外行,对购买的商品缺乏准确的、大量的、充分的信息。而另一类买主,是由生产者组成的买主集团,也叫做生产者市场。生产者市场是一种组织购买行为,它是组织生产的一部分。
另外,中间商作为生产制造企业的分销商,在经销过程中也是企业的一个买主,这就构成了另一类买主。
还有一种是政府及非盈利组织,它也要采购各种各样的商品,企业有时候也要面对这部分顾客。
这样,企业所面对的市场常常表现为消费者市场、生产者市场、中间商市场、政府及非盈利组织市场。不同的市场有不同的需求特征,了解不同的市场,才能有针对性地开展营销活动,收到理想的营销绩效。这是开展营销工作的最基本的前提。
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图1-3市场划分类型图
 
3.市场调研的内容
市场调研是营销工作的基础,是营销工作的第一步。
(1)环境调研
这里所说的环境,包括企业外部影响企业营销活动、企业不能控制或难以控制的所有因素。市场调研工作所要了解的环境,就是处在企业外部、企业本身不能控制或难以控制的影响因素。如果企业能够及时准确地了解它,知道自己处在什么样的环境当中,哪些因素对自己有利,哪些因素对自己不利,便可以在开展营销活动时抓住有利的因素充分加以利用,同时采取适当的办法规避那些对自己不利的因素,把它们降低到最小限度。这是开展营销活动时一项非常重要的工作,也是制订营销战略和策略的重要基础。
(2)市场营销活动效果调研
在开展营销活动中,可能经常遇到这样的问题,比如说做了广告,广告效果如何?开发了一个新产品,新产品在市场上引起的反响如何?或者说一个降价促销活动,在市场上产生了什么样的反应?这些情况,都属于市场营销活动的效果,都是企业家需要了解的。因此,市场营销调研当中还应该包括第二项内容——市场营销活动的效果调研。
 
营销战略
要想从企业的营销活动过程中了解市场环境,辨析出哪些因素对自己有利,哪些因素对自己不利,就要对现有的活动进行评价——哪些事情依靠这样的环境可以继续做下去或者应当继续投资?哪些项目不能继续投资或者应当减少投资?在对当前环境进行评价的基础上,搞清楚哪些是企业新的增长点,需要增加投资,就可以以此为目标来设计营销战略和营销组合策略。
所谓战略,是指长远性、方针性、全局性的谋略,它是策略的指导;而战略的实施又需要策略或者对策的有效组合。
在市场营销当中,营销战略和营销策略这两者之间不能脱节,而是要相辅相成。战略是指导,策略是具体实施的做法。
那么,在市场营销当中,战略包括哪些,策略包括哪些,战略和策略这两者之间又是怎样衔接的?
在回答什么是战略之前,首先必须明白一个问题:企业不管多大,都不可能满足所有顾客的所有需求。比如通用汽车公司很大,但是它也不能满足所有人的所有需求。因此,必须要搞明白,企业生产、经营什么样的商品,满足顾客什么样的需求,才能给企业带来最大的市场回报,或者说挣的钱最多。在这种情况下,需要对不同的市场进行了解,其前提是对市场进行细分。也就是说,战略的第一项内容便是市场细分。
 
1.市场细分
市场细分就是根据消费者需求的差异性,把消费者分成若干个群体,使每一个群体有大致相同的需求特征,而且群体之间有着明显或者比较明显的差别。企业根据市场细分的结果,可以从中为自己选择一个或多个目标市场。因此,营销战略涉及到的第二部分内容,就是市场目标化。
 
[pic]
图1-4营销战略
 
2.市场选择
市场目标化也就是市场选择。对企业来讲,如何选择市场,也是一个非常重要的课题。如果在选择过程中带有盲目性,企业投资就可能出现失误。因此,必须慎重而又科学地选择自己的营销对象,只有这样,企业的营销才能获得成功。
市场营销需要选择某一个消费群体,比如说高收入阶层,把他们作为自己的营销市场,以满足他们的需求为目标。但是竞争对手也可能把高收入阶层作为他的营销市场。那么,在你和竞争对手面对同样一个消费者群体开展营销活动的情况下,怎样才能争取更多的用户、或者说让消费者购买你的商品而不是竞争对手的商品呢?这就涉及到如何进行个性化设计和塑造的问题,也就是市场定位。
 
3.市场定位
定位就是确定一个位置。市场就是顾客,市场定位就是在消费者心目中确定一个位置。
什么样的情况叫做营销成功?或者说最成功的营销表现是什么?可能有人说,实现市场占有率的提高,实现更多商品的销售就是最成功的营销。的确,这是市场营销的成功标志。不过,一个市场营销最成功的表现,不单单是体现在产品上,更主要的是体现在品牌上。因此,企业家必须给顾客留下一个深刻的印象或者一个个性化的品牌。也就是说,市场定位的核心其实就是品牌个性化的设计与塑造。
在市场营销中,之所以强调企业要做第一,是因为市场上只关注第一,第一以后的市场被关注度将会大打折扣。
企业只有做到第一,在社会上才会有知名度,在市场上才会有拉动力。因此,企业要努力营造在某个方面的第一,营造在某个领域中的卖点,而这恰恰就是市场定位所要实现的。
这个环环紧扣的过程就叫做STP过程,也叫STP战略。经过STP过程,配合营销组合策略,可以获得一部分市场份额。而一个企业获得了一定的市场份额之后,都不会满足已取得的营销业绩,都会考虑怎么把企业做大。这就涉及到拓展战略和竞争战略。
 
4.市场拓展
企业赖以生存的基础是顾客,是市场,要想做大企业,首先要做大市场,也就是要进行市场拓展。市场拓展如果成功,企业会迅速地发展壮大;企业发展壮大了,就有可能获得更多的市场回报。当然,市场拓展是一个充满风险的过程,拓展成功能够使企业发展,市场回报增大,但如果不成功,企业死得更快。因此,必须审慎地对待市场拓展中的战略和预测。
不管是市场进入还是市场拓展都面临着一个问题,那就是市场竞争,竞争无处不在,无时不有。
 
5.市场竞争
以前说市场竞争就是市场上的战争,也叫商战,就是你死我活,优胜劣汰,一定要置竞争对手于死地。而现在,要想正确地应对市场竞争,则需要设计一些新的理念。
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