Identifying Logical Fallacies
* Ad Hominem
It is a Latin phrase which is described as an attack on the person rather than focusing on the argument.
For example: You should not listen to Professor Miller’s arguments for faculty salary increase. The only reason he is arguing for a pay raise is because he himself will benefit from it (Van Vleet 15).
In this example, it is clear that the speaker attacks Professor Miller personally rather than the actual argument for faculty salary increase, by blaming him that he is being selfish for increase in salary.
In this sentence, cold-heart is ad hominem associated with scientists.
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The above example demonstrates that how similar fallacies are often being exploited by the oppositions when arguing about the gun control debate.
* Ad Misericordiam
This argument is the appeal to pity, which is not fallacious or faulty. This is also known as emotional appeal.
For example: Augusto Pinochet is an old, dying man. It is wrong to make him stand trial for alleged offenses (Philosophical Society).
In this example, the appeal for pity on Augusto Pinochet is logical fallacy of Ad Misericordiam.
* Ad Populum
It is an argument which focuses on touching and appealing target audience’s emotions.
For example: Man could alleviate his misery by marriage. This close companionship enhances the joys of one and mitigated the sorrow of the other, and anyone knew God always provided for married people (Pearson 289).
In this example, logical fallacy ad populum is committed when the argument is supported with the help of others’ experience of marriage.
* Bandwgon Appeal
Appeal of belongingness to the circle or group and shaping up attitude like everyone else in the group.
For example: As everyone knows, the bill will help our children (American BookWorks Corporation 215).
Logical fallacy bandwagon appeal is committed by saying everyone’s belongingness to children’s help.
* False Analogy