Medical Malpractice And Informed Consent Essay

4958 words - 20 pages

Trends in Tobacco Use

American Lung Association
Research and Program Services
Epidemiology and Statistics Unit
July 2011

Table of Contents
Mortality
Consumption
Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Cessation
Tobacco Advertising and Promotion
State Laws and Secondhand Smoke
International Smoking Prevalence
List of Tables
Table 1: Smoking-Attributable Deaths Among Adults, 2000-2004 and Projected Smoking-Attributable Deaths
Among Youth, 2003-2004
Table 2: Cigarette Consumption, United States, 1900-2007
Table 3: Number of Adults Who Were Current Smokers by Sex, Race, and Age, Selected Years, 1965-2009
Table 4: Percent of Adults Who Were Current Smokers by Sex, Race, and Age, ...view middle of the document...

S. Advertising and Promotional Expenditures for Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco, 1975-2008
List of Figures:
Figure 1: Current Cigarette Smoking in Persons 18 and Older by Sex, Selected Years, 1965-2009
Figure 2: Current Cigarette Smoking by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, 2009
Figure 3: Current Cigarette Smoking in Persons 18 and Older by Race and Sex, Selected Years, 1965-2009
Figure 4: How High School Students Obtain Cigarettes, 2009
Figure 5: Percent of Current Smokers Under 18 Who Purchased Cigarettes in a Store and Were Not Asked To Show
Proof of Age or Who Were Not Refused Purchase Because of Their Age, 2009
Figure 6: Percent of Mothers Who Smoked During Pregnancy by Age, Selected Years, 1990-2008
Figure 7: Percent of Mothers Who Smoked During Pregnancy by Race/Ethnicity, Selected Years, 1990-2008
Figure 8: Percent of Middle and High School Students Exposed To Tobacco Use at Home by Smoking Status, 2009

Introduction
Cigarette smoking has been identified as the leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature
mortality in the United States.1 This report delineates the statistical information available on tobacco
use and consumption, as well as related morbidity and mortality. This narrative primarily focuses on
cigarettes but also includes statistical information on other tobacco products including smokeless
tobacco. Secondhand smoke exposure is also reviewed.
Mortality
Smoking is responsible for approximately one in five deaths in the United States. From 2000 to 2004,
smoking killed an average of approximately 443,000 people each year in the United States alone. This
includes an estimated 269,655 male and 173,940 female deaths annually. Among adults, most
smoking-attributable deaths were due to lung cancer (125,522), coronary heart disease (80,005) and
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other airway obstruction (78,988).2
Excluding adult deaths from exposure to secondhand smoke, adult males and females lost an average
of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively, due to smoking.3 Table 1 delineates the smokingattributable annual death rates in adults and the projected number of youth deaths by state. The highest
smoking-attributable annual death rate in adults was seen in Kentucky (370.6 per 100,000) while the
lowest rate was in Utah (138.3 per 100,000).4 If current tobacco use (as measured by smoking rates in
each state for 2003-04) and smoking-attributable mortality patterns persist in the United States, an
estimated 6.4 million children will eventually die prematurely from a smoking-related disease.5
The economic costs of smoking are astronomical. In 2004, tobacco use was estimated to cost the
United States $193 billion, including $97 billion in lost productivity and $96 billion in direct health
care expenditures.6 These costs include all diseases that are related to tobacco use, including those of
the lung and heart.
One study estimates that a greater decline in the smoking rate would...

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