Medsurg I Study Guide Essay

2889 words - 12 pages

Final exam study guide:
Cancer:
Know the difference between Benign and Malignant tumors.
Classification of tumors
Benign neoplasm
Well differentiated
Usually encapsulated
Kidneys have their own capsule so is easier to catch
Expansive mode of growth
Characteristics similar to parent cell
Metastasis is absent.
Rarely recur
Classification of tumors
Malignant neoplasm
May range from well differentiated to undifferentiated
Able to metastasize
Infiltrative and expansive growth
Frequent recurrence
Moderate to marked vascularity
Rarely encapsulated
Becomes less like parent cell
Check Moles and Freckles
Shows differentiation
Hair growing = blood supply = no differentiation = ...view middle of the document...

Anorexia/Nausea/Vomiting
Diarrhea/Constipation
Mucositis
Stomotitis
Alopecia
Bone marrow suppression
Keep eye on HCT
Immunosuppression (Neutropenia)
Neutrophil Counts
Thrombocytopenia
Organ damage (Liver, Kidney, Lung, Heart)
Fatigue
Radiation dermatitis/Dry reaction (desquamation
Surgery
Know how to treat these complications.
Give Antiemetics an hour before they have therapy
Avoid fat & Spicy food
Magic Mouth Wash – Benedryl, Mylanta - cooling, Litocaine – numb
Avoid alcohol
Wig programs
Know any lab values abnormalities that would correlate with these side effects and complications:
WBC – high then really low with chemo
RBC, Crit, Hemoglobin – low
Chemo&Radiation Side Effects
IV infiltration can lead to skin necrosis.
Anorexia/Nausea/Vomiting
Diarrhea/Constipation
Mucositis
Stomotitis
Alopecia
Bone marrow suppression
Keep eye on HCT
Immunosuppression (Neutropenia)
Neutrophil Counts
Thrombocytopenia
Organ damage (Liver, Kidney, Lung, Heart)
Fatigue
Radiation dermatitis/Dry reaction (desquamation

Pain:
Know the different kinds of pain.
* Cutaneous/Superficial: Arises from skin
* Visceral: Organ
* Somatic: Ligaments, Tendons, nerves, bone
* Neuropathic: Damage of Peripheral nerves
* Radiating: Starts at the origin but extends to other locations
* Referred: Occurs in one area but is felt in another
* Phantom: Perceived in an area that has been surgically removed
* Psychogenic: Pain that is believed to arise from the mind. No cause can be found

Know how to treat breakthrough pain.
Know the different complications of untreated pain.
Know how and when to assess pain.
* When
* Vitals
* Complaints of pain
* Before and After Pain Meds
* How
* Direct Interview
* OLDCART
* Onset, Location, Quantity, Intensity, Quality, Chonology, Aggravate/Alleviate, Effect on ADLs
* Intensity 1-10
* Observation
* Physiologic Indicators, Behavioral responses,
* Diagnostic Studies
* Physical Exam
Know the goals for treating acute and chronic pain.
Know the different dimensions of pain and how to treat.
* Dimensions
* Physiologic
* Affective
* Behavioral
* Sensory
* Cognitive
Know all treatment options.
*
* Three categories
* Non-Pharmacological
* Cutaneous stimulation
* “Gate Control”, TENS (Pop), PENS
* Acupuncture
* Acupressure
* Massage
* Heat & Cold
* Contralateral Stimulation
* Rest & Immobilization
* Cognitive-behavioral interventions
* Distraction
* Progressive Muscle relaxation
* Guided imagery
* Hypnosis
* Therapeutic
* Humor
* Journaling
* Non-opioid
* NSAIDS
* Aspirin
* Motrin
*...

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