Week 1 – Introduction to Management
CH01 - Management may be defined in different ways, but essentially it involves the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. The management process is composed of the four integrally-related management functions:
(1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) influencing, and (4) controlling. These functions are performed in all types of organizations.
These functions are interrelated because the performance of one depends upon the performance of the others as organizational goals are pursued. In pursuing those goals, management uses four basic types of organizational resources: (1) human, (2) monetary, (3) raw materials, and
(4) capital. Managerial efficiency and effectiveness are important in the utilization of these resources.
CH02 - This chapter discusses six approaches to management situations and to solving organizational problems.
The first one discussed is the Classical approach to management. This approach deals with lower-level management analysis, such as was done by Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry L. Gantt. It also is concerned with a comprehensive analysis of management as a whole, as exemplified by Henri Fayol.
Because the human factor was not adequately emphasized in the classical approach, the Behavioral approach to management was developed. This approach began with the experiments at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric. This method emphasizes people.
The third approach is the Management Science approach to management, which involves using the scientific method and mathematics to solve operational problems. This method began in World War II. The approach is widely used today, especially by very large, complex organizations.
The Contingency approach to management emphasizes that what managers do in practice is dependent on a given set of circumstances. The approach is based on the premise that there is probably no one best way to solve a management problem in all organizations, but there is probably one best way to solve any given managerial problem in a specific organization.
The fifth approach to management is the Systems approach. This approach is based on the theory that to understand fully the operation of an entity, the entity must be viewed as a system. There are two basic systems in management: closed systems and open systems. The effect of environmental factors on the management system cannot be over-emphasized. Managers can use triangular management to get the information they need about their environments.
The sixth approach to management is the Learning Organization approach. A learning organization is an organization that does well in creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and in modifying behavior to reflect new knowledge.